Berry Harvest™ tea 50g

£7.00

Berry Harvest™ tea is a rollercoaster of flavours. It begins with the tart and tangy notes of hibiscus and rose hip, followed by the sweet and juicy embrace of apples and blueberries.

Description

Get ready to pluck the juiciest moments from life with T’n’T Teas’® Berry Harvest™ tea. This playful and professional blend is a delightful dance of fruity flavours, wrapped in the tangy embrace of hibiscus and kissed with the sweetness of nature. Sip and savour a symphony of tastes that transport you to a berry-filled paradise. It’s a fruity fiesta in a cup, waiting to brighten your day!

The Berry Harvest™ tea – a tantalising fusion of playfulness and professionalism. This vibrant blend combines hibiscus, apple pieces, blueberries, rosehip, elderberries, lemon peel, liquorice, cinnamon, and a touch of stevia for an exhilarating tea experience.

Berry Harvest™ tea is a rollercoaster of flavours. It begins with the tart and tangy notes of hibiscus and rose hip, followed by the sweet and juicy embrace of apples and blueberries. The citrusy zest of lemon peel and the warm hug of cinnamon create a cosy and refreshing midsection, all while liquorice provides a hint of sweetness. The stevia adds a final flourish of balanced sweetness, making every sip a delightful adventure.

Sweetened with natural stevia leaves that counterbalance the slightly sour fruits, it won’t mess up your diet if you eat and drink this infusion. The Blueberries and Apple pieces provide fibre and the fruits and flowers provide your body with the vitamins and minerals for a healthy lifestyle.

Disclaimer

This information is provided for educational and informational purposes. It is not provided to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease. Legally, we are unable to make these claims directly, but we urge you to review the clinical references we list on this site and conduct your own research. These products are intended for dietary supplement purposes only. Whilst we are professional herbalists, and every care has been taken to provide accurate and up-to-date information, as a consumer, you should always consult your healthcare professional before consumption, especially if you are pregnant, nursing, have a medical condition or are taking medications. We do offer free personal consultations for solutions specific to your needs.

Additional information

Weight 50 g

Benefits / Side Effects

This tea blend isn’t just a burst of flavour; it’s a bouquet of health benefits. Hibiscus is known for its antioxidant properties, while rosehip offers a vitamin C boost. Blueberries and elderberries are packed with immune-supporting antioxidants, and liquorice aids digestion. Cinnamon adds a touch of warmth and potential blood sugar regulation.

This tea blend is generally well-tolerated, but there are a few potential side effects to be aware of:

Liquorice: Liquorice root can interact with certain medications such as high blood pressure medications and diuretics. Additionally, pregnant and breastfeeding women should talk to their doctor before consuming liquorice root.
Stevia: Stevia is a safe sweetener for most people, but it can cause digestive problems in some people.

Allergens: This tea blend is naturally free of common allergens, but it is always important to check the ingredient list for specific concerns.

Contraindications: Avoid if you have known allergies to any of the listed ingredients.

Consult your healthcare provider if pregnant, nursing, or with specific health conditions.

Disclaimer

This information is provided for educational and informational purposes. It is not provided to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease. Legally, we are unable to make these claims directly, but we urge you to review the clinical references we list on this site and conduct your own research. Alternatively, you can contact us for a free consultation. These products are intended for dietary supplement purposes only. While we are professional herbalists and every care has been taken to provide accurate and up-to-date information, as a consumer, you should always consult your healthcare professional before consumption, especially if you are pregnant, nursing, have a medical condition or are taking medications.

Profile

Colour: A vibrant, ruby-red hue that’s like a sip of summer sunshine.
Aroma: It’s a playful orchestra of fruity and zesty scents, like a berry-filled symphony with a citrusy twist.
Initial taste: The first sip is a burst of tangy excitement, like biting into a ripe berry, with hibiscus leading the fruity fanfare.
Midtones: Apples, blueberries, and rosehip join the party, creating a juicy and sweet midsection, while cinnamon adds warmth like a cosy blanket.
Aftertaste: A hint of liquorice and a touch of stevia sweeten the deal, leaving a memorable and balanced finale that lingers like a standing ovation.
Body: It’s a light and refreshing dance on your palate, a playful and spirited performance.
Caffeine content: This tea blend is caffeine-free, allowing you to enjoy the show without any caffeine-induced drama.

Ingredients

Hibiscus | Elderberries | Rosehips | Cinnamon | Liquorice | Stevia

Cruelty-free and vegan product logoWe cannot provide all the beneficial characteristics of each ingredient for legal reasons, but if you want a more detailed description of the possible benefits and side effects of each herb, please click on the name of the ingredient – this will take you to our parent company page and a full description (opens a new window).

This tea contains 100% natural products without allergens or impurities, and no added flavours or colourants, so its consumption should not cause any unpleasant stomach upsets. Please refer to possible side effects in the next tab.

Shake well before use.

GMO-Free. Suitable for vegans.

Hand-blended & prepared in Shropshire, England.

Certified Origins

Bulgarian flag denoting that one or more ingredients are ethically sourced from Bulgaria. Chinese flag denoting that one or more ingredients are ethically sourced from China. Hungarian flag denoting that one or more ingredients are ethically sourced from Hungary. Indonesian flag denoting that one or more ingredients are ethically sourced from Indonesia. Paraguayan flag denoting that one or more ingredients are ethically sourced in Paraguay. Sudanese flag denoting that one or more ingredients are ethically sourced from Sudan. Denoting that one or more ingredients was ethically sourced from Turkey.

Blended and packed in Shropshire, England.

Preparation

  1. Find your stage: Grab your favourite teapot or cup, it’s time for a berrylicious performance!
  2. Berry mix: Scoop a teaspoon of our Berry Harvest™ tea blend. The cast includes hibiscus, apples, blueberries, rosehip, elderberries, lemon peel, licorice, cinnamon, and a hint of stevia.
  3. H2O overture: Heat fresh, cold water to around 96°C (205°F). Get that water dancing!
  4. Steeping serenade: Pour the spirited water over the tea blend. Let the orchestra of flavours take center stage as they steep for 10-15 minutes.
  5. Lid for drama: Pop a lid on the teapot or cup, like a curtain closing before the grand reveal.
  6. Sweet surprise: If you’re in the mood for sweetness, a dash of honey or a slice of orange can join the berry symphony.
  7. Strain and shine: It’s showtime! Strain the tea blend; the actors have had their moment in the spotlight.
  8. Sip and applause: Hold your cup close, take a sip, and let the fruity and zesty flavors perform a lively ballet on your palate.
  9. Encore, anyone? Feeling the rhythm? Don’t hesitate to steep another round. The encore is just as enchanting as the main act.
  10. Standing ovation: Keep your Berry Harvest™ tea blend in a cool, dry place, ready for the next round of flavourful applause.

Ready to enjoy a berrylicious performance? Grab your teacup, and let the fruity and zesty symphony dazzle your senses!

Clinical References

Clinical evidence of the ingredients found in this product. These are public domain references and do not relate directly to our product.

Cinnamon

  • Admani S, Hill H, Jacob SE. Cinnamon Sugar Scrub Dermatitis: “Natural” Is Not Always Best. Pediatr Dermatol. 2017;34(1):e42-e43.
  • Agricultural Research Service. Dr. Duke’s Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases. Available at: www.ars-grin.gov/duke/.
  • Ainehchi N, Khaki A, Farshbaf-Khalili A, Hammadeh M, Ouladsahebmadarek E. The Effectiveness of Herbal Mixture Supplements with and without Clomiphene Citrate in Comparison to Clomiphene Citrate on Serum Antioxidants and Glycemic Biomarkers in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Willing to be Pregnant: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Biomolecules. 2019;9(6):215.
  • Alqasoumi S. Anti-secretagogue and antiulcer effects of ‘cinnamon’ Cinnamomum zeylanicum in rats. J Pharmacog Phytother 2012;4:53-61.
  • Anderson RA, Broadhurst CL, Polansky MM, et al. Isolation and Characterization of Polyphenol Type-A Polymers from Cinnamon with Insulin-like Biological Activity. J Agric Food Chem 2004;52:65-70.
  • Arentz S, Smith CA, Abbott J, Fahey P, Cheema BS, Bensoussan A. Combined Lifestyle and Herbal Medicine in Overweight Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS): A Randomized Controlled Trial. Phytother Res. 2017 Sep;31(9):1330-1340.
  • Azimi P, Ghiasvand R Feizi A, Hariri M, Abbasi B. Effects of cinnamon, cardamom, saffron, and ginger consumption on markers of glycemic control, lipid profile, oxidative stress, and inflammation in type 2 diabetes. Rev Diabet Stud. 2014 Fall-Winter;11(3-4):258-66.
  • Azimi P, Ghiasvand R, Feizi A, et al. Effect of cinnamon, cardamom, saffron and ginger consumption on blood pressure and a marker of endothelial function in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A randomized controlled clinical trial. Blood Press. 2016;25(3):133-40.
  • Blumenthal M, Goldberg A, Brinckmann J, eds. Herbal Medicine Expanded Commission E Monographs. Newton, MA: Integrative Medicine Communications, 2000.
  • Brancheau D, Patel B, Zughaib M. Do cinnamon supplements cause acute hepatitis? Am J Case Rep 2015;16:250-4.
  • Choi HK, Jung GW, Moon KH, et al. Clinical study of SS-Cream in patients with lifelong premature ejaculation. Urology 2000;55:257-61.
  • Chularisi MU, Picha P, Rienkijkan M, Preechanukool K. The cytotoxic effect of petroleum ether and chloroform extracts from Ceylon cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum nees) barks on tumor cells in vitro. Int J Crude Drug Res 1984;22:177-80.
  • Concalves JL, Lopes RC, Oliveira DB, et al. In vitro anti-rotavirus activity of some medicinal plants used in Brazil against diarrhea. J Ethnopharmacol 2005;99(3):403-7.
  • Corren, J., Lemay, M., Lin, Y., Rozga, L., and Randolph, R. K. Clinical and biochemical effects of a combination botanical product (ClearGuard) for allergy: a pilot randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Nutr.J 2008;7:20.
  • de Araújo MRC, Maciel PP, Castellano LRC, et al. Efficacy of essential oil of cinnamon for the treatment of oral candidiasis: A randomized trial. Spec Care Dentist 2021;41(3):349-357.
  • De Silva DAM, Jeewanthi RKC, Rajapaksha RHN, et al. Clean vs dirty labels: Transparency and authenticity of the labels of Ceylon cinnamon. PLoS One 2021;16(11):e0260474.
  • Eidi A, Mortazavi P, Bazargam M, Zaringhalam J. Hepatoprotective activity of cinnamon ethanolic extract against CCL 4-induced liver injury in rats. EXCLI J 2012;11:495-507.
  • El Az NMTA, Khalil FAM, Shaapan RM. Therapeutic effect of onion (allium cepa) and cinnamon (cinnamomum zeylanicum) oils on cryptosporidiosis in experimentally infected mice. Global Vet 2011;7:179-83.
  • Electronic Code of Federal Regulations. Title 21. Part 182 — Substances Generally Recognized As Safe. Available at: https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?CFRPart=182
  • Farahpour MR, Habibi M. Evaluation of the wound healing activity of an ethanolic extract of Ceylon cinnamon in mice. Vet Med 2012;57:53-7.
  • Felter SP, Vassallo JD, Carlton BD, Daston GP. A safety assessment of coumarin taking into account species-specificity of toxicokinetics. Food Chem Toxicol 2006;44:462-75.
  • Gobbi, M., Moia, M., Funicello, M., Riva, A., Morazzoni, P., and Mennini, T. In vitro effects of the dicyclohexylammonium salt of hyperforin on interleukin-6 release in different experimental models. Planta Med 2004;70(7):680-682.
  • Guzelcan, Y., Scholte, W. F., Assies, J., and Becker, H. E. [Mania during the use of a combination preparation with St. John’s wort (Hypericum perforatum)]. Ned.Tijdschr.Geneeskd. 10-6-2001;145(40):1943-1945.
  • Hajimonfarednejad M, Nimrouzi M, Heydari M, Zarshenas MM, Raee MJ, Jahromi BN. Insulin resistance improvement by cinnamon powder in polycystic ovary syndrome: a randomized double-blind placebo controlled clinical trial. Phytother Res 2018;32(2):276-83.
  • Harrer, G., Hubner, W. D., and Podzuweit, H. Effectiveness and tolerance of the hypericum extract LI 160 compared to maprotiline: a multicenter double-blind study. J.Geriatr.Psychiatry Neurol. 1994;7 Suppl 1:S24-S28.
  • Hassan SA, Barthwal R, Nair MS, Haque SS. Aqueous bark extract of Cinnamomum zeylanicum: a potential therapeutic agent for steptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) rats. Top J Pharm Res 2012;11:429-35.
  • Hawrelak, J. A. and Myers, S. P. Effects of two natural medicine formulations on irritable bowel syndrome symptoms: a pilot study. J Altern Complement Med 2010;16(10):1065-1071.
  • Heshmati J, Sepidarkish M, Morvaridzadeh M, et al. The effect of cinnamon supplementation on glycemic control in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Food Biochem 2020 Oct 27:e13543. doi: 10.1111/jfbc.13543.
  • Hicks, S. M., Walker, A. F., Gallagher, J., Middleton, R. W., and Wright, J. The significance of “nonsignificance” in randomized controlled studies: a discussion inspired by a double-blinded study on St. John’s wort (Hypericum perforatum L.) for premenstrual symptoms. J.Altern.Complement Med. 2004;10(6):925-932.
  • Isaac-Renton M, Li MK, Parsons LM. Cinnamon spice and everything not nice: many features of intraoral allergy to cinnamic aldehyde. Dermatitis. 2015;26(3):116-21.
  • Jahangirifar M, Taebi M, Dolatian M. The effect of cinnamon on primary dysmenorrhea: a randomized, double-blind clinical trial. Complement Ther Clin Pract 2018;33:56-60.
  • Jain S, Sangma T, Shukla SK, Mediratta PK. Effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicum extract on scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment and oxidative stress in rats. Nutr Neurosci 2015;18(5):210-6.
  • Jarvill-Taylor KJ, Anderson RA, Graves DJ. A hydroxychalcone derived from cinnamon functions as a mimetic for insulin in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. J Am Coll Nutr 2001;20:327-36.
  • Javed I, Faisal I, Rahman Z, et al. Lipid lowering effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicum in hyperlipidaemic albino rabbits. Pak J Pharm Sci 2012;25(1):141-7.
  • Kamath JV, Rana AC, Chowdhury AR. Pro-healing effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicum bark. Phytother Res 2003;17(8):970-2.
  • Kanerva L, Estlander T, Jolanki R. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis from spices. Contact Dermatitis 1996;35:157-62.
  • Khan A, Safdar M, Ali Khan M, et al. Cinnamon improves glucose and lipids of people with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2003;26:3215-8.
  • Meades G Jr, Henken RL, Waldrop GL, et al. Constituents of cinnamon inhibit bacterial acetyl CoA carboxylase. Planta Med 2010;76(14):1570-5.
  • Mirfeizi M, Mehdizadeh Tourzani Z, Mirfeizi SZ, et al. Controlling type 2 diabetes mellitus with herbal medicines: a triple-blind randomized clinical trial of efficacy and safety. J Diabetes. 2016 Sep;8(5):647-56.
  • Mirmiranpour H, Huseini HF, Derakhshanian H, Khodaii Z, Tavakoli-Far B. Effects of probiotic, cinnamon, and synbiotic supplementation on glycemic control and antioxidant status in people with type 2 diabetes; a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. J Diabetes Metab Disord 2019;19(1):53-60.
  • Nyadjeu P, Dongmo A, Nguelefack TB, Kamanyi A. Antihypertensive and vasorelaxant effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum stem bark aqueous extracts. J Complement Integr Med 2011;8.
  • Oliveira JdA, da Silva IC, Trindade LA, et al. Safety and tolerability of essential oil from Cinnamomum zeylanicum blume leaves with action on oral candidosis and its effect on the physical properties of the acylic resin. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2014;2014:325670.
  • Onderoglu S, Sozer S, Erbil KM, et al. The evaluation of long-term effcts of cinnamon bark and olive leaf on toxicity induced by streptozotocin administration to rats. J Pharm Pharmacol 1999;51:1305-12.
  • Peterson DW, George RC, Scaramozzino F, et al. Cinnamon extract inhibits tau aggregation associated with Alzheimer’s disease in vitro. J Alzheimers Dis 2009;17(3):585-97.
  • Pilapil VR. Toxic manifestations of cinnamon oil ingestion in a child. Clin Pediatr (Phila) 1989;28:276.
  • Quale, J. M., Landman, D., Zaman, M. M., Burney, S., and Sathe, S. S. In vitro activity of Cinnamomum zeylanicum against azole resistant and sensitive Candida species and a pilot study of cinnamon for oral candidiasis. Am J Chin Med 1996;24(2):103-109.
  • Rana IS, Singh A, Gwal R. In vitro study of antibacterial activity of aromatic and medicinal plants essential oils with special reference to cinnamon oil. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2011;3:376-80.
  • Ranasinghe P, Galappaththy P. Health benefits of Ceylon cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum): a summary of the current evidence. Ceylon Med J 2016;61(1):1-5.
  • Ranasinghe P, Jayawardana R, Galappaththy P, et al. Efficacy and safety of ‘true’ cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) as a pharmaceutical agent in diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabet Med 2012;29(12):1480-92.
  • Ranasinghe P, Jayawardena R, Galappaththy P, et al. Response to Akilen et al. Efficacy and safety of ‘true’ cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) as a pharmaceutical agent in diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabet Med 2013 Apr;30(4):506-7.
  • Ranasinghe P, Jayawardena R, Pigera S, et al. Evaluation of pharmacodynamic properties and safety of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Ceylon cinnamon) in healthy adults: a phase I clinical trial. BMC Complement Altern Med 2017;17(1):550.
  • Ranasinghe P, Pigera S, Premakumara GA, et al. Medicinal properties of ‘true’ cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum): a systematic review. BMC Complement Altern Med 2013;13:275.
  • Rao HJ, Lakshmi. Anti-diarrhoeal activity of the aqueous extract of the bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum linn in mice. J Clin Diagn Res 2012;6:117-24.
  • Rosti L, Gastaldi G, Frigiola A. Cinnamon and bacterial enteric infections. Indian J Pediatr 2008;75(5).
  • Rosti L, Gastaldi G. Chronic salmonellosis and cinnamon. Pediatrics 2005;116:1057.
  • Samarasekera R, Kalhari KS, Weerasinghe IS. Mosquitocidal acitivy of leaf and bark essential oils of Ceylon cinnamomum zeylanicum. J Essent Oil Res 2005;17:301-3.
  • Sambaiah, K. and Srinivasan, K. Effect of cumin, cinnamon, ginger, mustard and tamarind in induced hypercholesterolemic rats. Nahrung 1991;35(1):47-51.
  • Shirzad F, Morovatdar N, Rezaee R, Tsarouhas K, Abdollahi Moghadam A. Cinnamon effects on blood pressure and metabolic profile: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial in patients with stage 1 hypertension. Avicenna J Phytomed 2021;11(1):91-100.
  • Singh R, Koppikar SJ, Paul P, et al. Comparative analysis of cytotoxic effect of aqueous cinnamon extract from Cinnamomum zeylanicum bark with commercial cinnamaldehyde on various cell lines. Pharm Biol 2009;47:1174-9.
  • Steels E, Steels E, Deshpande P, Thakurdesai P, Dighe S, Collet T. A randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled study of intranasal standardized cinnamon bark extract for seasonal allergic rhinitis. Complement Ther Med. 2019;47:102198.
  • Takasao N, Tsuji-Naito K, Ishikura S, et al. Cinnamon extract promotes type I collagen biosynthesis via activation of IGF-I signaling in human dermal fibroblasts. J Agric Food Chem 2012;60(5):1193-200.
  • Talaei B, Amouzegar A, Sahranavard S, Hedayati M, Mirmiran P, Azizi F. Effects of cinnamon consumption on glycemic indicators, advanced glycation end products, and antioxidant status in type 2 diabetic patients. Nutrients. 2017 Sep 8;9(9). Pii:E991.
  • Tsuji-Naito K. Aldehydic components of cinnamon bark extract suppresses RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis through NFATc1 downregulation. Bioorg Med Chem 2008;16(20):9176-83.
  • Vafa M, Mohammadi F, Shidfar F, Sormaghi MS, Heidari I, Golestan B, Armiri F. Effects of cinnamon consumption on glycemic status, lipid profile and body composition in type 2 diabetic patients. Int J Prev Med. 2012 Aug;3(8):531-6.
  • Vallianou N, Tsang C, Taghizadeh M, Davoodvandi A, Jafarnejad S. Effect of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) supplementation on serum C-reactive protein concentrations: a meta-analysis and systematic review. Complement Ther Med 2019;42:271-8.
  • Vandersall A, Katta R. Eyelid dermatitis as a manifestation of systemic contact dermatitis to cinnamon. Dermatitis. 2015 Jul-Aug;26(4):189.
  • Verspohl EJ, Bauer K, Neddermann E. Antidiabetic effect of Cinnamomum cassia and Cinnamomum zeylanicum in vivo and in vitro. Phytother Res 2005;19:203-6.
  • Wansi SL, Nyadjeu P, Ngamga D, et al. Blood pressure lowering effect of the ethanol extract from the stembark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (lauraceae) in rats. Pharmacol online 2007;3:166-76.
  • Yang YC, Lee HS, Lee SE, et al. Ovicidal and adulticidal activities of Cinnamomum zeylanicum bark essential oil compounds and related compounds against Pediculus humanus capitis (Anopluar: Pediculicidae). Int J Parasitol 2005;35(14):1595-600.
  • Zareie A, Sahebkar A, Khorvash F, Bagherniya M, Hasanzadeh A, Askari G. Effect of cinnamon on migraine attacks and inflammatory markers: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Phytother Res 2020;34(11):2945-52.
  • Zobeiri M, Parvizi F, Shahpiri Z, et al. Evaluation of the effectiveness of cinnamon oil soft capsule in patients with functional dyspepsia: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2021;2021:6634115.

Elderberries

  • Anon. Elderberry (Sambucus species). The Poison Plant Patch, Novia Scotia Museum, 2007. Available at: https://museum.gov.ns.ca/poison/?section=species&id=117 (Accessed 16 October 2009).
  • Chrubasik C, Maier T, Dawid C, et al. An observational study and quantification of the actives in a supplement with Sambucus nigra and Asparagus officinalis used for weight reduction. Phytother Res 2008;22:913-8.
  • Cunha S, Meireles D, Machado J. Sambucus nigra – a promising natural source for human health. Exp Pathol Health Sci. 2016;8(2):59-66.
  • Electronic Code of Federal Regulations. Title 21. Part 182 — Substances Generally Recognized As Safe. Available at: https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?CFRPart=182
  • European elder. Canadian Poisonous Plants Information System. Available at: https://www.cbif.gc.ca/pls/pp/ppack.jump?p_null=all&p_psn=121&p_type=all&p_sci=comm&p_x=px (Accessed 16 October 2009).
  • Forster-Waldl E, Marchetti M, Scholl I, Focke M, et al. Type I allergy to elderberry (Sambucus nigra) is elicited by a 33.2 kDa allergen with significant homology to ribosomal inactivating proteins. Clin Exp Allergy 2003;33:1703-10.
  • Gray AM, Abdel-Wahab YH, Flatt PR. The traditional plant treatment, Sambucus nigra (elder), exhibits insulin-like and insulin-releasing actions in vitro. J Nutr 2000;130:15-20.
  • Marz RW, Ismail C, Popp MA. Action profile and efficacy of a herbal combination preparation for the treatment of sinusitis. Wien Med Wochenschr 1999;149:202-8.
  • Melzer, J., Saller, R., Schapowal, A., and Brignoli, R. Systematic review of clinical data with BNO-101 (Sinupret) in the treatment of sinusitis. Forsch Komplement.Med (2006.) 2006;13(2):78-87.
  • Neubauer N, Marz RW. Placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind, clincal trial with Sinupret sugar coated tablets on the basis of a therapy with antibiotics and decongestant nasal drops in acute sinusitis. Phytomedicine 1994;1:177-81.
  • Peric A, Kovacevic SV, Gacesa D, Peric AV. Efficacy and safety of combined treatment of acute rhinosinusitis by herbal medicinal product Sinupret and mometasone furoate nasal spray. ENT Updates 2017;7(2):68-74.
  • Picon, P. D., Picon, R. V., Costa, A. F., Sander, G. B., Amaral, K. M., Aboy, A. L., and Henriques, A. T. Randomized clinical trial of a phytotherapic compound containing Pimpinella anisum, Foeniculum vulgare, Sambucus nigra, and Cassia augustifolia for chronic constipation. BMC.Complement Altern.Med. 2010;10:17.
  • Viapiana A, Wesolowski M. The phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of infusions of Sambucus nigra L. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2017;72(1):82-7.
  • Vlachojannis JE, Cameron M, Chrubasik S. A systematic review on the sambuci fructus effect and efficacy profiles. Phytother Res. 2010 Jan;24(1):1-8.

Hibiscus

  • Abubakar SM, Ukeyima MT, Spencer JPE, Lovegrove JA. Acute effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyces on postprandial blood pressure, vascular function, blood lipids, biomarkers of insulin resistance and inflammation in humans. Nutrients. 2019;11(2). pii: E341.
  • Ahad A, Raish M, Bin Jardan YA, Alam MA, Al-Mohizea AM, Al-Jenoobi FI. Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa and Zingiber officinale on the antihypertensive activity and pharmacokinetic of losartan in hypertensive rats. Xenobiotica. 2020:1-11.
  • Al-Anbaki M, Cavin AL, Nogueira RC, et al. Hibiscus sabdariffa, a Treatment for Uncontrolled Hypertension. Pilot Comparative Intervention. Plants (Basel) 2021;10(5):1018.
  • Al-Anbaki M, Nogueira RC, Cavin AL, et al. Treating uncontrolled hypertension with Hibiscus sabdariffa when standard treatment is insufficient: Pilot intervention. J Altern Complement Med. 2019;25(12):1200-1205.
  • Alam MA, Bin Jardan YA, Alzenaidy B, et al. Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa and Zingiber officinale on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of amlodipine. J Pharm Pharmacol 2021;73(9):1151-60.
  • Alarcón-Alonso J, Zamilpa A, Aguilar FA, Herrera-Ruiz M, Tortoriello J, Jimenez-Ferrer E. Pharmacological characterization of the diuretic effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn (Malvaceae) extract. J Ethnopharmacol. 2012 Feb 15;139(3):751-6.
  • Ali, B. H., Al, Wabel N., and Blunden, G. Phytochemical, pharmacological and toxicological aspects of Hibiscus sabdariffa L.: a review. Phytother.Res 2005;19(5):369-375.
  • Asgary S, Soltani R, Zolghadr M, Keshvari M, Sarrafzadegan N. Evaluation of the effects of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) on oxidative stress and serum levels of lipids, insulin and hs-CRP in adult patients with metabolic syndrome: a double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. J Complement Integr Med. 2016;13(2):175-80.
  • Aziz Z, Wong SY, Chong NJ. Effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. on serum lipids: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Ethnopharmacol. 2013 Nov 25;150(2):442-50.
  • Baranova, V. S., Rusina, I. F., Guseva, D. A., Prozorovskaia, N. N., Ipatova, O. M., and Kasaikina, O. T. [The antiradical activity of plant extracts and healthful preventive combinations of these exrtacts with the phospholipid complex]. Biomed.Khim. 2012;58(6):712-726.
  • Barletta C, Paccone M, Uccello N, et al. Efficacy of food supplement Acidif plus in the treatment of uncomplicated UTIs in women: a pilot observational study. Minerva Ginecol. 2020;72(2):70-74.
  • Boix-Castejón M, Herranz-López M, Pérez Gago A, et al. Hibiscus and lemon verbena polyphenols modulate appetite-related biomarkers in overweight subjects: a randomized controlled trial. Food Funct. 2018;9(6):3173-3184.
  • Builders PF, Kabele-Toge B, Builders M, Chindo BA, Anwunobi PA, Isimi YC. Wound healing potential of formulated extract from hibiscus sabdariffa calyx. Indian J Pharm Sci. 2013 Jan;75(1):45-52.
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  • Cai T, Tamanini I, Cocci A, et al. Xyloglucan, hibiscus and propolis to reduce symptoms and antibiotics use in recurrent UTIs: a prospective study. Future Microbiol. 2019;14:1013-1021.
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  • Diantini A, Rahmat S, Alpiani A, Sumiwi SA, Lubis L, Levita J. Effect of the roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) calyces drink on the physiological parameters of healthy adult subjects. Biomed Rep 2021;15(5):89.
  • El Basheir, Z. M. and Fouad, M. A. A preliminary pilot survey on head lice, pediculosis in Sharkia Governorate and treatment of lice with natural plant extracts. J.Egypt.Soc.Parasitol. 2002;32(3):725-736.
  • Electronic Code of Federal Regulations. Title 21. Part 182 — Substances Generally Recognized As Safe. Available at: https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?CFRPart=182
  • Elkafrawy N, Younes K, Naguib A, et al. Antihypertensive efficacy and safety of a standardized herbal medicinal product of Hibiscus sabdariffa and Olea europaea extracts (NW Roselle): A phase-II, randomized, double-blind, captopril-controlled clinical trial. Phytother Res. 2020;34(12):3379-3387.
  • Fakeye TO, Adegoke AO, Omoyeni OC, Famakinde AA. Effects of water extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa, Linn (Malvaceae) ‘Roselle’ on excretion of a diclofenac formulation. Phytother Res. 2007;21(1):96-8.
  • Frank, T., Janssen, M., Netzel, M., Strass, G., Kler, A., Kriesl, E., and Bitsch, I. Pharmacokinetics of anthocyanidin-3-glycosides following consumption of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. extract. J Clin Pharmacol 2005;45(2):203-210.
  • Frank, T., Netzel, G., Kammerer, D. R., Carle, R., Kler, A., Kriesl, E., Bitsch, I., Bitsch, R., and Netzel, M. Consumption of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. aqueous extract and its impact on systemic antioxidant potential in healthy subjects. J Sci Food Agric. 8-15-2012;92(10):2207-2218.
  • Gurrola-Diaz, C. M., Garcia-Lopez, P. M., Sanchez-Enriquez, S., Troyo-Sanroman, R., Andrade-Gonzalez, I., and Gomez-Leyva, J. F. Effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa extract powder and preventive treatment (diet) on the lipid profiles of patients with metabolic syndrome (MeSy). Phytomedicine. 2010;17(7):500-505.
  • Hadi A, Pourmasoumi M, Kafeshani M, Karimian J, Maracy MR, Entezari MH. The Effect of Green Tea and Sour Tea (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) Supplementation on Oxidative Stress and Muscle Damage in Athletes. J Diet Suppl. 2017 May 4;14(3):346-357.
  • Haji, Faraji M. and Haji, Tarkhani A. The effect of sour tea (Hibiscus sabdariffa) on essential hypertension. J.Ethnopharmacol. 1999;65(3):231-236.
  • Hernandez-Perez, F. and Herrera-Arellano, A. [Therapeutic use Hibiscus sabadariffa extract in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. A randomized clinical trial]. Rev.Med Inst.Mex.Seguro.Soc. 2011;49(5):469-480.
  • Herranz-López M, Olivares-Vicente M, Boix-Castejón M, Caturla N, Roche E, Micol V. Differential effects of a combination of Hibiscus sabdariffa and Lippia citriodora polyphenols in overweight/obese subjects: A randomized controlled trial. Sci Rep. 2019;9(1):2999.
  • Herrera-Arellano, A., Flores-Romero, S., Chavez-Soto, M. A., and Tortoriello, J. Effectiveness and tolerability of a standardized extract from Hibiscus sabdariffa in patients with mild to moderate hypertension: a controlled and randomized clinical trial. Phytomedicine. 2004;11(5):375-382.
  • Herrera-Arellano, A., Miranda-Sanchez, J., Avila-Castro, P., Herrera-Alvarez, S., Jimenez-Ferrer, J. E., Zamilpa, A., Roman-Ramos, R., Ponce-Monter, H., and Tortoriello, J. Clinical effects produced by a standardized herbal medicinal product of Hibiscus sabdariffa on patients with hypertension. A randomized, double-blind, lisinopril-controlled clinical trial. Planta Med 2007;73(1):6-12.
  • Iyare EE, Adegoke OA. Maternal consumption of an aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa during lactation accelerates postnatal weight and delays onset of puberty in female offspring. Niger J Physiol Sci. 2008 Jun-Dec;23(1-2):89-94.
  • Jalalyazdi M, Ramezani J, Izadi-Moud A, Madani-Sani F, Shahlaei S, Ghiasi SS. Effect of hibiscus sabdariffa on blood pressure in patients with stage 1 hypertension. J Adv Pharm Technol Res. 2019;10(3):107-111.
  • Johnson SS, Oyelola FT, Ari T, Juho H. In vitro inhibitory activities of the extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (family Malvaceae) on selected cytochrome P450 isoforms. Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. 2013 Apr 12;10(3):533-40.
  • Kolawole JA, Maduenyi A. Effect of zobo drink (Hibiscus sabdariffa water extract) on pharmacokinetics of acetaminophen in human volunteers. Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 2004;29:25-9.
  • Kuriyan R, Kumar DR, Rajendran R, Kurpad AV. An evaluation of the hypolipidemic effect of an extract of Hibiscus Sabdariffa leaves in hyperlipidemic Indians: a double blind, placebo controlled trial. BMC Complement Altern Med 2010;10:27.
  • Lee CH, Kuo CY, Wang CJ, Wang CP, Lee YR, Hung CN, Lee HJ. A polyphenol extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. ameliorates acetaminophen-induced hepatic steatosis by attenuating the mitochondrial dysfunction in vivo and in vitro. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2012;76(4):646-51.
  • Levrini L, Azzi L, Bossi S. The efficacy of a dietary supplement with carnosine and Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (AqualiefTM) in patients with xerostomia: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. Clin Ter 2020;171(4):e295-e301.
  • Mahmoud, B. M., Ali, H. M., Homeida, M. M., and Bennett, J. L. Significant reduction in chloroquine bioavailability following coadministration with the Sudanese beverages Aradaib, Karkadi and Lemon. J.Antimicrob.Chemother. 1994;33(5):1005-1009.
  • Marhuenda J, Pérez-Piñero S, Arcusa R, et al. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to determine the effectiveness of a polyphenolic extract (Hibiscus sabdariffa and Lippia citriodora) for reducing blood pressure in prehypertensive and type 1 hypertensive subjects. Molecules. 2021;26(6):1783.
  • McKay DL, Chen CY, Saltzman E, Blumberg JB. Hibiscus Sabdariffa L. tea (tisane) lowers blood pressure in prehypertensive and mildly hypertensive adults. J Nutr 2010;140:298-303.
  • Micucci M, Angeletti A, Cont M, Corazza I, Aldini R, Donadio E, Chiarini A, Budriesi R. Hibiscus Sabdariffa L. Flowers and Olea Europea L. Leaves Extract-Based Formulation for Hypertension Care: In Vitro Efficacy and Toxicological Profile. J Med Food. 2016 May;19(5):504-12.
  • Milandri R, Maltagliati M, Bocchialini T, et al. Effectiveness of D-mannose, Hibiscus sabdariffa and Lactobacillus plantarum therapy in prevention of infectious events following urodynamic study. Urologia. 2019;86(3):122-125.
  • Mohagheghi A, Maghsoud S, Khashayar P, Ghazi-Khansari M. The effect of hibiscus sabdariffa on lipid profile, creatinine, and serum electrolytes: a randomized clinical trial. ISRN Gastroenterol. 2011;2011:976019.
  • Mohamed R, Fernandez J, Pineda M, Aguilar M. Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) seed oil Is a rich source of gamma-tocopherol. J Food Sci 2007;72:S207-11.
  • Mozaffari-Khosravi H, Ahadi Z, Barzegar K. The effect of green tea and sour tea on blood pressure of patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized clinical trial. J Diet Suppl. 2013 Jun;10(2):105-15.
  • Mozaffari-Khosravi, H., Jalali-Khanabadi, B. A., Afkhami-Ardekani, M., and Fatehi, F. Effects of sour tea (Hibiscus sabdariffa) on lipid profile and lipoproteins in patients with type II diabetes. J Altern.Complement Med 2009;15(8):899-903.
  • Mozaffari-Khosravi, H., Jalali-Khanabadi, B. A., Afkhami-Ardekani, M., Fatehi, F., and Noori-Shadkam, M. The effects of sour tea (Hibiscus sabdariffa) on hypertension in patients with type II diabetes. J Hum.Hypertens 2009;23(1):48-54.
  • Najafpour Boushehri S, Karimbeiki R, Ghasempour S, et al. The efficacy of sour tea (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) on selected cardiovascular disease risk factors: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. Phytother Res. 2020;34(2):329-339.
  • Ngamjarus C, Pattanittum P, Somboonporn C. Roselle for hypertension in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2010:1:CD007894.
  • Nwachukwu DC, Aneke E, Nwachukwu NZ, Obika LF, Nwagha UI, Eze AA. Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffaon blood pressure and electrolyte profile of mild to moderate hypertensive Nigerians: A comparative study with hydrochlorothiazide. Niger J Clin Pract. 2015 Nov-Dec;18(6):762-70.
  • Sabzghabaee AM, Ataei E, Kelishadi R, Ghannadi A, Soltani R, Badri S, Shirani S. Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa Calices on Dyslipidemia in Obese Adolescents: A Triple-masked Randomized Controlled Trial. Mater Sociomed. 2013;25(2):76-9.
  • Serban C, Sahebkar A, Ursoniu S, Andrica F, Banach M. Effect of sour tea (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) on arterial hypertension: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Hypertens. 2015 Jun;33(6):1119-27.
  • Showande SJ, Adegbolagun OM, Igbinoba SI, Fakeye TO. In vivo pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic interactions of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyces extracts with simvastatin. J Clin Pharm Ther. 2017;42(6):695-703.
  • Souirti Z, Loukili M, Soudy ID, et al. Hibiscus sabdariffa increases hydroxocobalamin oral bioavailability and clinical efficacy in vitamin B(12) deficiency with neurological symptoms. Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 2016;30(6):568-576.
  • Wahabi, H. A., Alansary, L. A., Al-Sabban, A. H., and Glasziuo, P. The effectiveness of Hibiscus sabdariffa in the treatment of hypertension: a systematic review. Phytomedicine. 2010;17(2):83-86.
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Liquorice

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  • Agarwal, A., Gupta, D., Yadav, G., Goyal, P., Singh, P. K., and Singh, U. An evaluation of the efficacy of licorice gargle for attenuating postoperative sore throat: a prospective, randomized, single-blind study. Anesth Analg 2009;109(1):77-81.
  • Ai, M., Yamaguchi, T., Odaka, T., Mitsuhashi, K., Shishido, T., Yan, J., Seza, A., and Saisho, H. Objective assessment of the antispasmodic effect of shakuyaku-kanzo-to (TJ-68), a Chinese herbal medicine, on the colonic wall by direct spraying during colonoscopy. World J Gastroenterol 2-7-2006;12(5):760-764.
  • Akamatsu, H., Komura, J., Asada, Y., and Niwa, Y. Mechanism of anti-inflammatory action of glycyrrhizin: effect on neutrophil functions including reactive oxygen species generation. Planta Med 1991;57(2):119-121.
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  • Amaryan G, Astvatsatryan V, Gabrielyan E, et al. Double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, pilot clinical trial of ImmunoGuard–a standardized fixed combination of Andrographis paniculata Nees, with Eleutherococcus senticosus Maxim, Schizandra chinensis Bail. and Glycyrrhiza glabra L. extracts in patients with Familial Mediterranean Fever. Phytomedicine 2003;10:271-85.
  • Amato P, Christophe S, Mellon PL. Estrogenic activity of herbs commonly used as remedies for menopausal symptoms. Menopause 2002;9:145-50.
  • American Herbal Products Association’s Botanical Safety Handbook, Second Edition. Ed. Gardner Z, McGuffin M. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2013.
  • Anonymous. Treatment of duodenal ulcer with glycyrrhizinic-acid-reduced liquorice. A multicentre trial. Br Med J 1971;3(773):501-503.
  • Aoki, F., Nakagawa, K., Kitano, M., Ikematsu, H., Nakamura, K., Yokota, S., Tominaga, Y., Arai, N., and Mae, T. Clinical safety of licorice flavonoid oil (LFO) and pharmacokinetics of glabridin in healthy humans. J Am Coll.Nutr 2007;26(3):209-218.
  • Arase, Y., Ikeda, K., Murashima, N., Chayama, K., Tsubota, A., Koida, I., Suzuki, Y., Saitoh, S., Kobayashi, M., and Kumada, H. The long term efficacy of glycyrrhizin in chronic hepatitis C patients. Cancer 1997;79(8):1494-1500.
  • Arentz S, Smith CA, Abbott J, Fahey P, Cheema BS, Bensoussan A. Combined Lifestyle and Herbal Medicine in Overweight Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS): A Randomized Controlled Trial. Phytother Res. 2017 Sep;31(9):1330-1340.
  • Armanini D, Bonanni G, Mattarello MJ, et al. Licorice consumption and serum testosterone in healthy man. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 2003;111:341-3.
  • Armanini D, Bonanni G, Palermo M. Reduction of serum testosterone in men by licorice. N Engl J Med 1999;341:1158.
  • Armanini D, De Palo CB, Mattarello MJ, et al. Effect of licorice on reduction of body fat mass in healthy subjects. J Endocrinol Invest 2003;26:646-50.
  • Armanini D, Lewicka S, Pratesi C, et al. Further studies on the mechanism of the mineralocorticoid action of licorice in humans. J Endocrinol Invest 1996;19:624-9.
  • Armanini, D., Castello, R., Scaroni, C., Bonanni, G., Faccini, G., Pellati, D., Bertoldo, A., Fiore, C., and Moghetti, P. Treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome with spironolactone plus licorice. Eur J Obstet Gynecol.Reprod Biol 2007;131(1):61-67.
  • Armanini, D., Mattarello, M. J., Fiore, C., Bonanni, G., Scaroni, C., Sartorato, P., and Palermo, M. Licorice reduces serum testosterone in healthy women. Steroids 2004;69(11-12):763-766.
  • Armanini, D., Nacamulli, D., Francini-Pesenti, F., Battagin, G., Ragazzi, E., and Fiore, C. Glycyrrhetinic acid, the active principle of licorice, can reduce the thickness of subcutaneous thigh fat through topical application. Steroids 2005;70(8):538-542.
  • Asl, M. N. and Hosseinzadeh, H. Review of pharmacological effects of Glycyrrhiza sp. and its bioactive compounds. Phytother Res 2008;22(6):709-724.
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  • Baba, M. and Shigeta, S. Antiviral activity of glycyrrhizin against varicella-zoster virus in vitro. Antiviral Res 1987;7(2):99-107.
  • Badr, A. E., Omar, N., and Badria, F. A. A laboratory evaluation of the antibacterial and cytotoxic effect of Liquorice when used as root canal medicament. Int Endod.J 2011;44(1):51-58.
  • Bai, Y. S., Zhou, C. Y., and Wang, J. Q. [Clinical observation on auxiliary treatment of hormone dependence dermatitis by shufeng liangxue decoction]. Zhongguo Zhong.Xi.Yi Jie.He.Za Zhi 2008;28(12):1121-1123.
  • Balakrishnan, V., Pillai, M. V., Raveendran, P. M., and Nair, C. S. Deglycyrrhizinated liquorice in the treatment of chronic duodenal ulcer. J Assoc Physicians India 1978;26(9):811-814.
  • Bannister, B., Ginsburg, R., and Shneerson, J. Cardiac arrest due to liquoriceinduced hypokalaemia. Br Med J 9-17-1977;2(6089):738-739.
  • Bardhan, K. D., Cumberland, D. C., Dixon, R. A., and Holdsworth, C. D. Clinical trial of deglycyrrhizinised liquorice in gastric ulcer. Gut 1978;19(9):779-782.
  • Barrella, M., Lauria, G., Quatrale, R., and Paolino, E. Hypokaliemic rhabdomyolysis associated with liquorice ingestion: report of an atypical case. Ital.J Neurol.Sci 1997;18(4):217-220.
  • Baykul, T., Alanoglu, E. G., and Kocer, G. Use of Ankaferd Blood Stopper as a hemostatic agent: a clinical experience. J Contemp Dent Pract 2010;11(1):E088-E094.
  • Bell ZW, Canale RE, Bloomer RJ. A dual investigation of the effect of dietary supplementation with licorice flavonoid oil on anthropometric and biochemical markers or health and adiposity. Lipids Health Dis 2011;10:29.
  • Benge E, Shah P, Yamaguchi L, Josef V. Trick or Treat? Licorice-Induced Hypokalemia: A Case Report. Cureus 2020;12(11):e11656.
  • Beretta-Piccoli, C., Salvade, G., Crivelli, P. L., and Weidmann, P. Body-sodium and blood volume in a patient with licorice-induced hypertension. J Hypertens 1985;3(1):19-23.
  • Berlango Jimenez A., Jimenez Murillo L., Montero Perez F. J., Munoz Avila J. A., Torres Murillo J., and Calderon de la Barca Gazquez J. M. [Acute rhabdomyolysis and tetraparesis secondary to hypokalemia due to ingested licorice]. An Med Interna 1995;12(1):33-35.
  • Bernardi, M., D’Intino, P. E., Trevisani, F., Cantelli-Forti, G., Raggi, M. A., Turchetto, E., and Gasbarrini, G. Effects of prolonged ingestion of graded doses of licorice by healthy volunteers. Life Sci 1994;55(11):863-872.
  • Bisogni V, Rossi GP, Calò LA. Apparent mineralcorticoid excess syndrome, an often forgotten or unrecognized cause of hypokalemia and hypertension: case report and appraisal of the pathophysiology. Blood Press. 2014 Jun;23(3):189-92.
  • Bocker, D. and Breithardt, G. [Induction of arrhythmia by licorice abuse]. Z Kardiol 1991;80(6):389-391.
  • Brasseur, A. and Ducobu, J. [Severe hypokalemia after holidays return]. Rev Med Brux 2008;29(5):490-493.
  • Brayley J, Jones J. Life-threatening hypokalemia associated with excessive licorice ingestion (letter). Am J Psychiatry 1994;151:617-8.
  • Brouwers, A. J. and van der, Meulen J. [‘Licorice hypertension’ also caused by licorice tea]. Ned.Tijdschr Geneeskd. 4-14-2001;145(15):744-747.
  • Brush, J., Mendenhall, E., Guggenheim, A., Chan, T., Connelly, E., Soumyanath, A., Buresh, R., Barrett, R., and Zwickey, H. The effect of Echinacea purpurea, Astragalus membranaceus and Glycyrrhiza glabra on CD69 expression and immune cell activation in humans. Phytother Res 2006;20(8):687-695.
  • Burgess, J. A., van der Ven, P. F., Martin, M., Sherman, J., and Haley, J. Review of over-the-counter treatments for aphthous ulceration and results from use of a dissolving oral patch containing glycyrrhiza complex herbal extract. J Contemp.Dent Pract. 2008;9(3):88-98.
  • Caradonna, P., Gentiloni, N., Servidei, S., Perrone, G. A., Greco, A. V., and Russo, M. A. Acute myopathy associated with chronic licorice ingestion: reversible loss of myoadenylate deaminase activity. Ultrastruct Pathol 1992;16(5):529-535.
  • Carmeli, E. and Fogelman, Y. Antioxidant effect of polyphenolic glabridin on LDL oxidation. Toxicol.Ind.Health 2009;25(4-5):321-324.
  • Carmeli, E., Harpaz, Y., Kogan, N. N., and Fogelman, Y. The effect of an endogenous antioxidant glabridin on oxidized LDL. J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol 2008;19(1):49-63.
  • Cassano, N., Mantegazza, R., Battaglini, S., Apruzzi, D., Loconsole, F., and Vena, G. A. Adjuvant role of a new emollient cream in patients with palmar and/or plantar psoriasis: a pilot randomized open-label study. G Ital Dermatol Venereol 2010;145(6):789-792.
  • Caubet-Kamar, N., Tubery, M., Garrouste, C., Lauque, D., and Kamar, N. Harmful effect of saline infusion in a patient with glycyrrhizic acid poisoning. CJEM 2010;12(3):224-225.
  • Celik, M. M., Karakus, A., Zeren, C., Demir, M., Bayarogullari, H., Duru, M., and Al, M. Licorice induced hypokalemia, edema, and thrombocytopenia. Hum Exp Toxicol 2012;31(12):1295-1298.
  • Chamberlain, J. J. and Abolnik, I. Z. Pulmonary edema following a licorice binge. West J Med 1997;167(3):184-185.
  • Chang GH, Lin YS, Hsu KH, et al. Nasal irrigation with Glycyrrhiza glabra extract for treatment of allergic rhinitis – A study of in vitro, in vivo and clinical trial. J Ethnopharmacol 2021;275:114116.
  • Chatterjee, N., Domoto-Reilly, K., Fecci, P. E., Schwamm, L. H., and Singhal, A. B. Licorice-associated reversible cerebral vasoconstriction with PRES. Neurology 2010;75(21):1939-1941.
  • Chen MF, Shimada F, Kato H, Yano S, Kanaoka M. Effect of glycyrrhizin on the pharmacokinetics of prednisolone following low dosage of prednisolone hemisuccinate. Endocrinol Jpn 1990;37:331-41.
  • Chen, M. F., Shimada, F., Kato, H., Yano, S., and Kanaoka, M. Effect of oral administration of glycyrrhizin on the pharmacokinetics of prednisolone. Endocrinol Jpn 1991;38(2):167-174.
  • Chen, W. G. and Ba, Z. M. Prof. ZHANG Yi’s experience in treating severe arrhythmia. J Tradit.Chin Med 2010;30(1):47-50.
  • Chien, C. F., Wu, Y. T., and Tsai, T. H. Biological analysis of herbal medicines used for the treatment of liver diseases. Biomed.Chromatogr. 2011;25(1-2):21-38.
  • Chin, Y. W., Jung, H. A., Liu, Y., Su, B. N., Castoro, J. A., Keller, W. J., Pereira, M. A., and Kinghorn, A. D. Anti-oxidant constituents of the roots and stolons of licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra). J Agric Food Chem 6-13-2007;55(12):4691-4697.
  • Cinatl J, Morgenstern B, Bauer G, et al. Glycyrrhizin, an active component of liquorice roots, and replication of SARS-associated coronavirus. Lancet 2003;361:2045-6.
  • Cooper, H., Bhattacharya, B., Verma, V., McCulloch, A. J., Smellie, W. S., and Heald, A. H. Liquorice and soy sauce, a life-saving concoction in a patient with Addison’s disease. Ann Clin Biochem 2007;44(Pt 4):397-399.
  • Corse, F. M., Galgani, S., Gasparini, C., Giacanelli, M., and Piazza, G. Acute hypokalemic myopathy due to chronic licorice ingestion: report of a case. Ital J Neurol Sci 1983;4(4):493-497.
  • Costa, A., Moises, T. A., Cordero, T., Alves, C. R., and Marmirori, J. Association of emblica, licorice and belides as an alternative to hydroquinone in the clinical treatment of melasma. An Bras Dermatol 2010;85(5):613-620.
  • Cotterill, J. A. and Cunliffe, W. J. Self-medication with liquorice in a patient with Addison’s disease. Lancet 2-10-1973;1(7798):294-295.
  • Crean, A. M., Abdel-Rahman, S. E., and Greenwood, J. P. A sweet tooth as the root cause of cardiac arrest. Can J Cardiol 2009;25(10):e357-e358.
  • Cumming, A. M., Boddy, K., Brown, J. J., Fraser, R., Lever, A. F., Padfield, P. L., and Robertson, J. I. Severe hypokalaemia with paralysis induced by small doses of liquorice. Postgrad Med J 1980;56(657):526-529.
  • Da Nagao, Y., Sata, M., Suzuki, H., Tanikawa, K., Itoh, K., and Kameyama, T. Effectiveness of glycyrrhizin for oral lichen planus in patients with chronic HCV infection. J Gastroenterol 1996;31(5):691-695.
  • Dai DW, Singh I, Hershman JM. Lozenge-induced hypermineralcorticoid state–a unique case of licorice lozenges resulting in hypertension and hypokalemia. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) 2016;18(2):159-60.
  • Das SK, Das V, Gulati AK, and et al. Deglycyrrhizinated liquorice in aphthous ulcers. J Assoc Physicians India 1989;37(10):647.
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Rosehips

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  • Janse, van Rensburg, Erasmus, E., Loots, D. T., Oosthuizen, W., Jerling, J. C., Kruger, H. S., Louw, R., Brits, M., and van der Westhuizen, F. H. Rosa roxburghii supplementation in a controlled feeding study increases plasma antioxidant capacity and glutathione redox state. Eur J Nutr 2005;44(7):452-457.
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  • Larsen, E., Kharazmi, A., Christensen, L. P., and Christensen, S. B. An antiinflammatory galactolipid from rose hip (Rosa canina) that inhibits chemotaxis of human peripheral blood neutrophils in vitro. J.Nat.Prod. 2003;66(7):994-995.
  • Ma, Y. X., Zhu, Y., Wang, C. F., Wang, Z. S., Chen, S. Y., Shen, M. H., Gan, J. M., Zhang, J. G., Gu, Q., and He, L. The aging retarding effect of ‘Long-Life CiLi’. Mech.Ageing Dev 1997;96(1-3):171-180.
  • Moreno Gimenez, J. C., Bueno, J., Navas, J., and Camacho, F. [Treatment of skin ulcer using oil of mosqueta rose]. Med Cutan.Ibero.Lat.Am 1990;18(1):63-66.
  • Rein, E., Kharazmi, A., and Winther, K. A herbal remedy, Hyben Vital (stand. powder of a subspecies of Rosa canina fruits), reduces pain and improves general wellbeing in patients with osteoarthritis–a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised trial. Phytomedicine. 2004;11(5):383-391.
  • Rein, E., Kharazmi, A., Thamsborg, G., and Winther, K. Herbal remedy made from a subspecies of rose-hip Rosa canina reduces symptoms of knee and hip osteoarthritis. Osteoarthr Cartil 2004;12(Suppl 2):80.
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  • Shabykin, G. P. and Godorazhi, A. I. [A polyvitamin preparation of fat-soluble vitamins (carotolin) and rose hip oil in the treatment of certain dermatoses]. Vestn.Dermatol.Venerol. 1967;41(4):71-73.
  • Shiota, S., Shimizu, M., Mizusima, T., Ito, H., Hatano, T., Yoshida, T., and Tsuchiya, T. Restoration of effectiveness of beta-lactams on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus by tellimagrandin I from rose red. FEMS Microbiol.Lett 4-15-2000;185(2):135-138.
  • Teng, C. M., Kang, Y. F., Chang, Y. L., Ko, F. N., Yang, S. C., and Hsu, F. L. ADP-mimicking platelet aggregation caused by rugosin E, an ellagitannin isolated from Rosa rugosa Thunb. Thromb.Haemost. 1997;77(3):555-561.
  • Trovato, A., Monforte, M. T., Forestieri, A. M., and Pizzimenti, F. In vitro anti-mycotic activity of some medicinal plants containing flavonoids. Boll Chim Farm 2000;139(5):225-227.
  • Venkatesh, R. P., Ramaesh, K., and Browne, B. Rose-hip keratitis. Eye 2005;19(5):595-596.
  • Warholm, O., Skaar, S., Hedman, E., Molmen, H. M., and Eik, L. The effects of a standardized herbal remedy ade from a subtype of Rosa canina in patients with osteoarthritis: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Curr Ther Res 2003;64(1):21-31.
  • Winther, K. and Kharazmi, A. A powder prepared from seeds and shells of subtype of rose-hip Rosa canina reduces pain in patients with osteoarthritis of the hand – a double blind, placebo-controlled study. Osteoarthr Cartil 2004;12(Suppl 2):145.
  • Winther, K., Apel, K., and Thamsborg, G. A powder made from seeds and shells of a rose-hip subspecies (Rosa canina) reduces symptoms of knee and hip osteoarthritis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Scand J Rheumatol. 2005;34(4):302-308.
  • Andersson U, Berger K, Hogberg A, et al. Effects of rose hip intake on risk markers of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease: a randomized, double-blind, cross-over investigation in obese persons. Eur J Clin Nutr 2012;66:585-90.
  • Back D. J., Breckenridge A. M., MacIver M, et al. Interaction of ethinyloestradiol with ascorbic acid in man. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1981;282:1516.
  • Bani S, Hasanpour S, Mousavi Z, Mostafa Garehbaghi P, Gojazadeh M. The effect of Rosa damascena extract on primary dysmenorrhea: A double-blind cross-over clinical trial. Iran Red Crescent Med J. 2014;16(1):e14643.
  • Bottari A, Belcaro G, Ledda A, et al. Lady Prelox improves sexual function in generally healthy women of reproductive age. Minerva Ginecol 2013;65(4):435-44.
  • Cesarone MR, Belcaro G, Scipione C, et al. Prevention of vaginal dryness in perimenopausal women. Supplementation with Lady Prelox®. Minerva Ginecol. 2019;71(6):434-41.
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  • García Hernández JÁ, Madera González D, Padilla Castillo M, Figueras Falcón T. Use of a specific anti-stretch mark cream for preventing or reducing the severity of striae gravidarum. Randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. Int J Cosmet Sci. 2013;35(3):233-7.
  • Han SH, Hur MH, Buckle J, et al. Effect of aromatherapy on symptoms of dysmenorrhea in college students: A randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial. J Altern Complement Med 2006;12(6):535-41.
  • Hansten P. D., Hayton W. L. Effect of antacid and ascorbic acid on serum salicylate concentration. J Clin Pharmacol 1980;20:326-31.
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  • Jiang K, Tang K, Liu H, Xu H, Ye Z, Chen Z. Ascorbic acid supplements and kidney stones incidence among men and women: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Urol J. 2019;16(2):115-120.
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  • Mármol I, Sánchez-de-Diego C, Jiménez-Moreno N, Ancín-Azpilicueta C, Rodríguez-Yoldi MJ. Therapeutic applications of rose hips from different Rosa species. Int J Mol Sci. 2017;18(6):1137.
  • McLeod DC, Nahata MC. Inefficacy of ascorbic acid as a urinary acidifier (letter). N Engl J Med 1977;296:1413.
  • Moré M, Gruenwald J, Pohl U, Uebelhack R. A Rosa canina – urtica dioica – harpagophytum procumbens/zeyheri combination significantly reduces gonarthritis symptoms in a randomized, placebo-controlled double-blind study. Planta Med 2017;83(18):1384-91.
  • Morris JC, Beeley L, Ballantine N. Interaction of ethinyloestradiol with ascorbic acid in man [letter]. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1981;283:503.
  • Mostafa-Gharabaghi P, Delazar A, Gharabaghi MM, Shobeiri MJ, Khaki A. The view of cesarean pain after preemptive use of Rosa damascena extract in women with elective cesarean section. World Sci J. 2013;4:226-35.
  • Oprica L, Bucsa C, Zamfiranche MM. Ascorbic acid content of rose hip fruit depending on altitude. Iran J Public Health 2015;44(1):138-9.
  • Parandin R, Ghowsi M, Dadbod A. Protective effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Rosa canina L. fruit on cyclophosphamide-induced testicular toxicity in mice. Avicenna J Phytomed 2023;13(1):7-17.
  • Phetcharat L, Wongsuphasawat K, Winther K. The effectiveness of a standardized rose hip powder, containing seeds and shells of Rosa canina, on cell longevity, skin wrinkles, moisture, and elasticity. Clin Interv Aging. 2015;10:1849-56.
  • Prasad KN. Rationale for using high-dose multiple dietary antioxidants as an adjunct to radiation therapy and chemotherapy. J Nutr 2004;134:3182S-3S.
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  • Seifi M, Abbasalizadeh S, Mohammad-Alizadeh-Charandabi S, Khodaie L, Mirghafourvand M. The effect of Rosa (L. Rosa canina) on the incidence of urinary tract infection in the puerperium: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Phytother Res 2018;32(1):76-83.
  • Smith EC, Skalski RJ, Johnson GC, Rossi GV. Interaction of ascorbic acid and warfarin. JAMA 1972;221:1166.
  • Taylor EN, Stampfer MJ, Curhan GC. Dietary factors and the risk of incident kidney stones in men: new insights after 14 years of follow-up. J Am Soc Nephrol 2004;15:3225-32.
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  • Van Steirteghem AC, Robertson EA, Young DS. Influence of large doses of ascorbic acid on laboratory test results. Clin Chem. 1978;24(1):54-7.
  • Vihtamaki T, Parantainen J, Koivisto AM, et al. Oral ascorbic acid increases plasma oestradiol during postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy. Maturitas 2002;42:129-35.
  • Weintraub M, Griner PF. Warfarin and ascorbic acid: lack of evidence for a drug interaction. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 1974;28:53-6.
  • Willich SN, Rossnagel K, Roll S, et al. Rose hip herbal remedy in patients wth rheumatoid arthritis – a randomised controlled trial. Phytomedicine 2010;17:87-93.
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Stevia

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  • Curi R, Alvarez M, Bazotte RB, et al. Effect of Stevia rebaudiana on glucose tolerance in normal adult humans. Braz J Med Biol Res 1986;19:771-4.
  • D’Agostino, M., De Simone, F., Pizza, C., and Aquino, R. [Sterols in Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni]. Boll.Soc Ital Biol Sper. 12-30-1984;60(12):2237-2240.
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  • Farhat G, Berset V, Moore L. Effects of Stevia Extract on Postprandial Glucose Response, Satiety and Energy Intake: A Three-Arm Crossover Trial. Nutrients. 2019;11(12):3036.
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  • Geuns JM. Stevioside. Phytochemistry 2003;64:913-21.
  • Geuns, J. M., Buyse, J., Vankeirsbilck, A., and Temme, E. H. Metabolism of stevioside by healthy subjects. Exp Biol Med (Maywood.) 2007;232(1):164-173.
  • Gregersen S, Jeppesen PB, Holst JJ, Hermansen K. Antihyperglycemic effects of stevioside in type 2 diabetic subjects. Metabolism 2004;53:73-6.
  • Hsieh MH, Chan P, Sue YM, et al. Efficacy and tolerability of oral stevioside in patients with mild essential hypertension: a two-year, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Clin Ther 2003;25:2797-808.
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  • Jeppesen PB, Gregersen S, Poulsen CR, Hermansen K. Stevioside acts directly on pancreatic beta cells to secrete insulin: actions independent of cyclic adenosine monophosphate and adenosine triphosphate-sensitive K+-channel activity. Metabolism 2000;49:208-14.
  • Jeppesen, P. B., Gregersen, S., Alstrup, K. K., and Hermansen, K. Stevioside induces antihyperglycaemic, insulinotropic and glucagonostatic effects in vivo: studies in the diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats. Phytomedicine 2002;9(1):9-14.
  • Jeppesen, P. B., Gregersen, S., Rolfsen, S. E., Jepsen, M., Colombo, M., Agger, A., Xiao, J., Kruhoffer, M., Orntoft, T., and Hermansen, K. Antihyperglycemic and blood pressure-reducing effects of stevioside in the diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rat. Metabolism 2003;52(3):372-378.
  • Kinghorn, A. D., Soejarto, D. D., Nanayakkara, N. P., Compadre, C. M., Makapugay, H. C., Hovanec-Brown, J. M., Medon, P. J., and Kamath, S. K. A phytochemical screening procedure for sweet ent-kaurene glycosides in the genus Stevia. J Nat Prod. 1984;47(3):439-444.
  • Klongpanichpak, S., Temcharoen, P., Toskulkao, C., Apibal, S., and Glinsukon, T. Lack of mutagenicity of stevioside and steviol in Salmonella typhimurium TA 98 and TA 100. J Med Assoc Thai. 1997;80 Suppl 1:S121-S128.
  • Koyama, E., Kitazawa, K., Ohori, Y., Izawa, O., Kakegawa, K., Fujino, A., and Ui, M. In vitro metabolism of the glycosidic sweeteners, stevia mixture and enzymatically modified stevia in human intestinal microflora. Food Chem.Toxicol. 2003;41(3):359-374.
  • Lailerd N, Saengsirisuwan V, Sloniger JA, et al. Effects of stevioside on glucose transport activity in insulin-sensitive and insulin-resistant rat skeletal muscle. Metabolism 2004;53:101-7.
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  • Li, J., Jiang, H., and Shi, R. A new acylated quercetin glycoside from the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni. Nat.Prod Res 2009;23(15):1378-1383.
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  • Matsui M, Matsui K, Kawasaki Y, et al. Evaluation of the genotoxicity of stevioside and steviol using six in vitro and one in vivo mutagenicity assays. Mutagenesis 1996;11:573-9.
  • Melis MS, Sainati AR. Effect of calcium and verapamil on renal function of rats during treatment with stevioside. J Ethnopharmacol 1991;33:257-622.
  • Melis MS. A crude extract of Stevia rebaudiana increases the renal plasma flow of normal and hypertensive rats. Braz J Med Biol Res 1996;29:669-75.
  • Melis MS. Chronic administration of aqueous extract of Stevia rebaudiana in rats: renal effects. J Ethnopharmacol 1995;47:129-34.
  • Melis MS. Effects of chronic administration of Stevia rebaudiana on fertility in rats. J Ethnopharmacol 1999;67:157-61.
  • Pezzuto JM, Compadre CM, Swanson SM, et al. Metabolically activated steviol, the aglycone of stevioside, is mutagenic. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1985;82:2478-82.
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  • Sambra V, Vicuña IA, Priken KM, et al. Acute responses of stevia and d-tagatose intake on metabolic parameters and appetite/satiety in insulin resistance. Clin Nutr ESPEN 2022;49:217-224.
  • Simoens C, Philippaert K, Wuyts C, et al. Pharmacokinetics of Oral Rebaudioside A in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Its Effects on Glucose Homeostasis: A Placebo-Controlled Crossover Trial. Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 2022;47(6):827-839.
  • Stamataki NS, Crooks B, Ahmed A, McLaughlin JT. Effects of the Daily Consumption of Stevia on Glucose Homeostasis, Body Weight, and Energy Intake: A Randomised Open-Label 12-Week Trial in Healthy Adults. Nutrients 2020;12(10):3049.
  • Stamataki NS, Scott C, Elliott R, McKie S, Bosscher D, McLaughlin JT. Stevia Beverage Consumption prior to Lunch Reduces Appetite and Total Energy Intake without Affecting Glycemia or Attentional Bias to Food Cues: A Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial in Healthy Adults. J Nutr. 2020;150(5):1126-1134.
  • Takasaki, M., Konoshima, T., Kozuka, M., Tokuda, H., Takayasu, J., Nishino, H., Miyakoshi, M., Mizutani, K., and Lee, K. H. Cancer preventive agents. Part 8: Chemopreventive effects of stevioside and related compounds. Bioorg.Med.Chem. 1-15-2009;17(2):600-605.
  • Taware, A. S., Mukadam, D. S., and Chavan, A. M. Antimicrobial Activity of Different Extracts of Callus and Tissue Cultured Plantlets of Stevia Rebaudiana (Bertoni). Journal of Applied Science Research 2010;6(7):883-887.
  • Tomita T, Sato N, Arai T, et al. Bactericidal activity of a fermented hot-water extract from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni towards enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 and other food-borne pathogenic bacteria. Microbiol Immunol 1997;41:1005-9.
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  • US Food and Drug Administration. Import Alert 45-06: Detention without Physical Examination of Stevia Leaves, Crude Extracts of Stevia Leaves and foods Containing Stevia Leaves and/or Stevia Extracts. October 4, 2021. Available at: https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/cms_ia/importalert_119.html. Accessed on: May 6, 2022.
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  • Yang, P. S., Lee, J. J., Tsao, C. W., Wu, H. T., and Cheng, J. T. Stimulatory effect of stevioside on peripheral mu opioid receptors in animals. Neurosci.Lett 4-17-2009;454(1):72-75.
  • Yasukawa, K., Kitanaka, S., and Seo, S. Inhibitory effect of stevioside on tumor promotion by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate in two-stage carcinogenesis in mouse skin. Biol Pharm Bull. 2002;25(11):1488-1490.

Conditions Of Use And Important Information

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