Eldergreen™ 50g

(1 customer review)

£7.00

This tea is loaded with camomile and elderflower to help soothe you when you need a short break but the lemon verbena and lemon peel ensure this tea is light and refreshing so you will soon feel energised and ‘ready to go’ again.

SKU: GS04/EGT050 Category: Tags: , , , ,

Description

T’n’T Teas’® Eldergreen™ tea blend is your gateway to revitalisation. A perfect harmony of nature’s finest elements. Energising and soothing, a touch of citrusy zest, and a hint of floral sweetness – it’s your sip of sunshine and serenity.

The Eldergreen™ tea – an invigorating and chilled or hot herbal tea blend that’s a breath of fresh air in every glass. With a harmonious infusion of Green tea, Elderflower, Camomile, Lemon verbena, and Lemon peel, it’s a sip of nature’s best.

As you take your first sip of Eldergreen™ tea, the Green tea takes the lead, embracing your palate with its invigorating earthiness. Elderflower follows, offering a delicate, floral layer reminiscent of a peaceful meadow. Camomile’s soothing presence unfolds, akin to a tranquil evening under the starry sky. Lemon verbena delivers a zesty citrus note, akin to a burst of sunshine, while the lemon peel adds a tangy twist. It’s a flavorful journey that dances harmoniously with your taste buds.

Rediscover freshness with each cup. Sip, savour, and let Eldergreen™ tea be your companion for those sunny days and refreshing moments.

Additional information

Weight 50 g

Wellbeing/Side Effects

These ingredients have traditionally been used for:

Revitalising energy boost: Promotes alertness and mental clarity without high caffeine jitters.
Calming stress relief: Reduces stress hormones, eases anxiety, and promotes relaxation.
Digestive wellness: Improves gut health, reduces discomfort, and promotes regular bowel movements.
Immune system enhancement: Strengthens defences against illness, protects against oxidative stress, and supports immune function.
Skin health benefits: Protects skin from free radical damage, reduces signs of ageing, and promotes a healthy glow.
Refreshing hydration: Quenches thirst and revitalises throughout the day.
Soothing respiratory support:< Clears airways, promotes respiratory comfort, and supports respiratory function.
Natural relaxant enhancement: Prepares the body for restful relaxation, promotes tranquillity, and eases tension.

The Eldergreen™ tea is a 100% natural product, it does not contain allergens or impurities, and it does not contain added flavours, so its consumption should not cause unpleasant stomach upsets.

Green tea may interact with certain medications, including blood thinners and antidepressants.
Camomile may cause drowsiness in some individuals.
Lemon verbena may interact with certain medications, including blood thinners and diuretics.

Allergens
None of the ingredients in T’n’T Teas® Eldergreen™ tea are known allergens.

Contradictions
Not recommended for pregnant or breastfeeding women.

T’n’T Teas® Eldergreen™ tea is a certified, premium quality professionally mixed product, made with the highest quality, medicinal natural herbs from around the world. We pay special attention to the purity of the plants, so we only buy the certified raw materials for our products from reliable, controlled sources, so we can ensure that we minimise contact with foreign substances during storage, transportation, and production.

CAUTION: Herbs have medicinal properties and can promote the body’s physical and mental self-healing and harmonising process, but they cannot replace medical examination, care and possible treatment – so if you are on medication from your doctor, please check that they are happy for you to drink the tea. If you feel any discomfort, stop and only restart slowly if you are comfortable doing so (it might not be the herbal tea that causes the discomfort!). Pregnant or breastfeeding women should exercise extra caution and children under the age of 12 years old should avoid caffeinated products altogether.

Profile

Step into the world of T’n’T Teas’® Eldergreen™ tea, where every sip unfolds a botanical story:

Colour: A gentle emerald, like a walk through a lush garden.

Aroma: An enchanting blend of earthy green tea, elderflower sweetness, and the zesty charm of lemon verbena, akin to a garden bathed in morning sunlight.

Initial taste: The first sip is a crisp and citrusy greeting as if a lemon garden just opened its gates.

Midtones: The green tea’s sweet notes intertwine with the elderflower’s delicate sweetness, creating a harmonious mid-act as peaceful as a calm meadow.

Aftertaste: A gentle wave of lemon peel rounds off the performance, leaving a fresh, citrusy memory like a stroll through a lemon grove.

Body: Light and invigorating, a lively ballet on your taste buds, each sip akin to a gentle morning breeze.

Caffeine content: Minimal – a soothing embrace to unwind. A subtle lift to start your day, much like the sunrise.

Sip, savour, and let Eldergreen™ tea be your aromatic gateway to a world of botanical enchantment and refreshment.

Ingredients

Gunpowder Green tea | Camomile flowers | Elderflower | Lemon Verbena | Lemon peel

Cruelty-free and vegan product logoThis tea contains 100% natural products without allergens or impurities, and no added flavours or colourants, so its consumption should not cause any unpleasant stomach upsets.

Please refer to possible side effects in the next tab.

Shake well before use.

GMO-Free. Suitable for vegans.

Hand-blended & prepared in Shropshire, England.

Certified Origins

Chinese flag denoting that one or more ingredients are ethically sourced from China. Croatian flag denoting that one or more ingredients was ethically sourced from Croatia. Hungarian flag denoting that one or more ingredients are ethically sourced from Hungary. Paraguayan flag denoting that one or more ingredients are ethically sourced in Paraguay. Turkish flag denoting that one or more ingredients are ethically sourced from Turkey.

Preparation

Preparation for hot tea:

  1. Summon the kettle: Start with some good old H2O in a kettle. Imagine it’s your trusty steed, ready to embark on a tea adventure.
  2. Tea leaf magic: Grab a teaspoon of our Eldergreen™ tea for every cup you’re planning to share. Each spoonful is like a sprinkle of fairy dust.
  3. The hot water ballet: As the kettle reaches a rolling boil, it’s showtime! Pour the hot water over the tea leaves, and watch them pirouette and twirl in the infusion.
  4. Curtain call for flavour: Cover your brew and let it steep for 3-7 minutes – it’s the secret behind the enchanting flavour.
  5. A strain of stardust: Like a magician revealing their secrets, strain out the tea leaves. They’ve shared their magic, and now it’s ready for your sip of wonder.
  6. Sweeten your fairytale: If you desire a dash of sweetness, add honey, sugar, or your favourite sweetener. Think of it as the final touch on a storybook ending.

Sip, savour, and let the enchanting journey of Eldergreen™ tea transport you to a world of flavor and delight!

Preparation for 1 litre of iced tea:

  1. Get the kettle boiling: Start by putting the kettle on, just like the opening notes of a symphony.
  2. Tea leaves take a dive: While the kettle hums, take 1 tablespoon of our Eldergreen™ tea for a cup. Imagine the tea leaves as graceful dancers.
  3. Hot water showtime: The kettle gives a theatrical whistle – it’s showtime! Pour the 80 degrees of hot water over the tea leaves, and they’ll start their delightful dance, releasing the herbal magic.
  4. Cover and let the party begin: Like a magician hiding their secrets, cover the tea and let it steep for about 5 minutes. The flavours are mingling, preparing for a spectacular performance.
  5. Sweet swirls and lemon loops: Once you’ve strained the tea, it’s time to add some sweetener – stevia, honey, or sugar – to your taste. Think of this as adding the secret ingredients to your magical potion. A few drops of lemon are like the final touch of stardust!
  6. Jug the magic: Transfer your brewed tea into a large jug. Imagine it’s a mystical elixir ready to enchant your senses.
  7. The icy transformation: Add plenty of ice cubes to your large jug, as well as three cups of icy cold water or mineral water. Watch the steamy potion become icy and tantalising.

Now, raise your glass, and enjoy the enchantment of your Eldergreen™ iced tea – refreshing experience!

For the best flavour, store in a cool dark place.

Clinical References

Clinical evidence of the ingredients found in this product. These are public domain references and do not relate directly to our product.

Camomile

  • Agarwal A, Chaudhary B. Clinical and microbiological effects of 1% Matricaria chamomilla mouth rinse on chronic periodontitis: a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial. J Indian Soc Periodontol 2020;24(4):354-61.
  • Aitken-Saavedra J, Chaves Tarquinio SB, De Oliveira da Rosa WL, et al. Effect of a homemade salivary substitute prepared using chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) flower and flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) seed to relieve primary burning mouth syndrome: a preliminary report. J Altern Complement Med 2020;26(9):799-806.
  • Amsterdam JD, Li Y, Soeller I, et al. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of oral Matricaria recutita (chamomile) extract therapy for generalized anxiety disorder. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2009;29(4):378-382.
  • Avallone R, Zanoli P, Puia G, et al. Pharmacological profile of apigenin, a flavonoid isolated from Matricaria chamomilla. Biochem Pharmacol 2000;59:1387-94.
  • Barene I, Daberte I, Zvirgzdina L, Iriste V. The complex technology on products of German chamomile. Medicina (Kaunas). 2003;39(Suppl 2):127-131.
  • Becker B, Kuhn U, Hardewig-Budny B. Double-blind, randomized evaluation of clinical efficacy and tolerability of an apple pectin-chamomile extract in children with unspecific diarrhea. Arzneimittelforschung 2006;56(6):387-393.
  • Benito P, Rodríguez-Perez R, García F, Juste S, Moneo I, Caballero ML. Occupational allergic rhinoconjunctivitis induced by Matricaria chamomilla with tolerance of chamomile tea. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol. 2014;24(5):369-70. No abstract available. View abstract.
  • Bosak Z, Iravani M, Moghimipour E, Haghighizadeh MH, Jelodarian P, Khazdair MR. Evaluation of the influence of chamomile vaginal gel on dyspareunia and sexual satisfaction in postmenopausal women: a randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial. Avicenna J Phytomed 2020;10(5):481-91.
  • Braga FT, Santos AC, Bueno PC, et al. Use of Chamomilla recutita in the prevention and treatment of oral mucositis in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a randomized, controlled, phase II clinical trial. Cancer Nurs 2015;38(4):322-9.
  • Buckle J. Use of aromatherapy as a complementary treatment for chronic pain. Altern Ther Health Med 1999;5:42-51.
  • Budzinski JW, Foster BC, Vandenhoek S, Arnason JT. An in vitro evaluation of human cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibition by selected commercial herbal extracts and tinctures. Phytomedicine 2000;7:273-82.
  • Carl W, Emrich LS. Management of oral mucositis during local radiation and systemic chemotherapy: a study of 98 patients. J Prosthet Dent 1991;66:361-9.
  • Charousaei F, Dabirian A, Mojab F. Using chamomile solution or a 1% topical hydrocortisone ointment in the management of peristomal skin lesions in colostomy patients: results of a controlled clinical study. Ostomy Wound Manage 2011;57:28-36.
  • Daneshfard B, Shahriari M, Heiran A, Nimrouzi M, Yarmohammadi H. Effect of chamomile on chemotherapy-induced neutropenia in pediatric leukemia patients: A randomized triple-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. Avicenna J Phytomed. 2020;10(1):58-69.
  • Eddouks M, Lemhardri A, Zeggwagh NA, Michel JB. Potent hypoglycaemic activity of the aqueous extract of Chamaemelum nobile in normal and streptozoticin-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2005;67(3);189-95.
  • Electronic Code of Federal Regulations. Title 21. Part 182 — Substances Generally Recognized As Safe. Available at: https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?CFRPart=182
  • Electronic Code of Federal Regulations. Title 21. Part 182 — Substances Generally Recognized As Safe. Available at: https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?CFRPart=182
  • Fidler P, Loprinzi CL, O’Fallon JR, et al. Prospective evaluation of a chamomile mouthwash for prevention of 5-FU-induced oral mucositis. Cancer 1996;77:522-5.
  • Forster CF, Sussmann HE, Patzelt-Wenczler R. [Optimization of the Barron ligature treatment of 2nd and 3rd-degree hemorrhoids using a therapeutic troika]. Praxis (Bern 1994) 1996;85(46):1476-1481.
  • Ganzera M, Schneider P, Stuppner H. Inhibitory effects of the essential oil of chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.) and its major constituents on human cytochrome P450 enzymes. Life Sci 2006;78(8):856-861.
  • Garbuio DC, Ribeiro VDS, Hamamura AC, et al. A Chitosan-Coated Chamomile Microparticles Formulation to Prevent Radiodermatitis in Breast: A Double-blinded, Controlled, Randomized, Phase II Clinical Trial. Am J Clin Oncol 2022;45(5):183-189.
  • George J, Hegde S, Rajesh KS, et al. The efficacy of a herbal-based toothpaste in the control of plaque and gingivitis: a clinico-biochemical study. Indian J Dent Res 2009;20(4):480-482.
  • Glowania HJ, Raulin C, Swoboda M. [Effect of chamomile on wound healing–a clinical double-blind study]. Z Hautkr 1987;62(17):1262, 1267-1271.
  • Gomaa A, Hashem T, Mohamed M, Ashry E. Matricaria chamomilla extract inhibits both development of morphine dependence and expression of abstinence syndrome in rats. J Pharmacol Sci 2003;92:50-5.
  • Guimaraes R, Barros L, Duenas M, et al. Nutrients, phytochemicals and bioactivity of wild Roman chamomile: a comparison between the herb and its preparations. Food Chem 2013;136(2):718-25.
  • Habersang S, Leuschner F, Isaac O, Thiemer K. [Pharmacological studies with compounds of chamomile. IV. Studies on toxicity of (-)-alpha-bisabolol (author’s transl)]. Planta Med 1979;37:115-23.
  • Holtmann G, Madisch A, Juergen H, et al. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial on the effects of an herbal preparation in patients with functional dyspepsia [Abstract]. Ann Mtg Digestive Disease Week 1999 May.
  • Hormann HP, Korting HC. Evidence for the efficacy and safety of topical herbal drugs in dermatology: part I: anti-inflammatory agents. Phytomedicine 1994;1:161-71.
  • Kabiri M, Kamalinejad M, Bioos S, Shariat M, Sohrabvand F. Comparative study of the effects of chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) and cabergoline on idiopathic hyperprolactinemia: a pilot randomized controlled trial. Iran J Pharm Res 2019;18(3):1612-21.
  • Kassi E, Papoutsi Z, Fokialakis N, et al. Greek plant extracts exhibit selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM)-like properties. J Agric Food Chem 2004;52:6956-61.
  • Kobayashi Y, Nakano Y, Inayama K, et al. Dietary intake of the flower extracts of German chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.) inhibited compound 48/80-induced itch-scratch responses in mice. Phytomedicine 2003;10:657-64.
  • Loggia RD, Traversa U, Scarcia V, et al. Depressive effects of Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rausch, tubular flowers, on central nervous system in mice. Pharmacol Res Commun 1982;14(2):153-162.
  • Lopez Jornet P, Aznar-Cayuela C. Efficacy of topical chamomile management vs. placebo in patients with oral lichen planus: a randomized double-blind study. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2016;30(10):1783-6.
  • Madisch A, Holtmann G, Mayr G, et al. Treatment of functional dyspepsia with a herbal preparation. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial. Digestion 2004;69:45-52.
  • Madisch A, Melderis H, Mayr G, et al. [A plant extract and its modified preparation in functional dyspepsia. Results of a double-blind placebo controlled comparative study]. Z Gastroenterol 2001;39(7):511-7.
  • Maliakal PP, Wanwimolruk S. Effect of herbal teas on hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes in rats. J Pharm Pharmacol 2001;53:1323-9.
  • Mao JJ, Xie SX, Keefe JR, Soeller I, Li QS, Amsterdam JD. Long-term chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) treatment for generalized anxiety disorder: A randomized clinical trial. Phytomedicine 2016;23(14):1735-1742.
  • Martinelli M, Ummarino D, Giugliano FP, et al. Efficacy of a standardized extract of Matricariae chamomilla L., Melissa officinalis L. and tyndallized Lactobacillus acidophilus (HA122) in infantile colic: an open randomized controlled trial. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2017 Dec;29:e13145.
  • Melzer J, Rosch W, Reichling J, et al. Meta-analysis: phytotherapy of functional dyspepsia with the herbal drug preparation STW 5 (Iberogast). Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2004;20:1279-87.
  • Menêses AG, Ferreira EB, Bontempo PSM, Guerra ENS, Reis PEDD. Use of Chamomile Infusion to Mitigate Radiotherapy-Induced Dry Desquamation in Head and Neck Cancer Patients. Integr Cancer Ther 2022;21:15347354221105491.
  • Mostafapour Kandelous H, Salimi M, Khori V, Rastkari N, Amanzadeh A, Salimi M. Mitochondrial apoptosis induced by Chamaemelum nobile extract in breast cancer cells. Iran J Pharm Res 2016;15(Suppl):197-204.
  • Nemati S, Yousefbeyk F, Ebrahimi SM, FaghihHabibi A, Shakiba M, Ramezani H. Effects of chamomile extract nasal drop on chronic rhinosinusitis treatment: A randomized double-blind study. Am J Otolaryngol 2021;42(1):102743.
  • Patzelt-Wenczler R, Ponce-Poschl E. Proof of efficacy of Kamillosan cream in atopic eczema. Eur J Med Res 2000;5:171-175.
  • Pirzad A, Alyari H, Shakiba RM, Zehtab-Salmasi S, and Mohammadi SA. Essential Oil Content and Composition of German Chamomile ( Matricaria chamomilla L. ) at Different Irrigation Regimes. Journal of Agronomy. 03/2006; 5(3).
  • Robbers JE, Tyler VE. Tyler’s Herbs of Choice: The Therapeutic Use of Phytomedicinals. New York, NY: The Haworth Herbal Press, 1999.
  • Saghafi N, Rhkhshandeh H, Pourmoghadam N, et al. Effectiveness of Matricaria chamomilla (chamomile) extract on pain control of cyclic mastalgia: a double-blind randomised controlled trial. J Obstet Gynaecol 2018;38(1):81-4.
  • Sahebnasagh M, Aksi V, Eslami F, et al. Prevention of radiotherapy-related oral mucositis with zinc and polyherbal mouthwash: a double-blind, randomized clinical trial. Eur J Med Res 2023;28(1):109.
  • Saller R, Beschomer M, Hellenbrecht D, et al. Dose dependency of symptomatic relief of complaints by chamomile steam inhalation in patients with common cold. Eur J Pharmacol 1990;183:728-729.
  • Sarris J, Ravindran A, Yatham LN, et al. Clinician guidelines for the treatment of psychiatric disorders with nutraceuticals and phytoceuticals: The World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) and Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT) Taskforce. World J Biol Psychiatry 2022;23(6):424-455.
  • Savino F, Cresi F, Castagno E, et al. A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of a standardized extract of Matricariae recutita, Foeniculum vulgare and Melissa officinalis (ColiMil) in the treatment of breastfed colicky infants. Phytother Res 2005;19:335-40.
  • Segal R, Pilote L. Warfarin interaction with Matricaria chamomilla. CMAJ 2006;174:1281-2.
  • Sharifi H, Mianie MB, Qasemzadeh MG, Ataei N, Gharehbeglou M, Heydari M. Topical use of matricaria recutita L (chamomile) oil in the treatment of monosymptomatic enuresis in children: a double-blind randomized controlled trial. J Evid Based Complementary Altern Med. 2017 Jan;22(1):12-17.
  • Sharma AK, Basu I, Singh S. Efficacy and safety of Ashwagandha root extract in subclinical hypothyroid patients: a double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial. J Altern Complement Med. 2018 Mar;24(3):243-248.
  • Storr M, Sibaev A, Weiser D, et al. Herbal extracts modulate the amplitude and frequency of slow waves in circular smooth muscle of mouse small intestine. Digestion 2004;70:257-64.
  • Subiza J, Subiza JL, Hinojosa M, et al. Anaphylactic reaction after the ingestion of chamomile tea; a study of cross-reactivity with other composite pollens. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1989;84:353-8.
  • Subiza J, Subiza JL, Hinojosa M, et al. Anaphylactic reaction after the ingestion of chamomile tea; a study of cross-reactivity with other composite pollens. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1989;84:353-8.
  • Tavakoli Ardakani M, Ghassemi S, Mehdizadeh M, Mojab F, Salamzadeh J, Ghassemi S, Hajifathali A. Evaluating the effect of matricaria recutita and mentha piperita herbal mouthwash on management of oral mucositis in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a randomized, double blind, placebo controlled clinical trial. Complement Ther Med 2016 Dec;29:29-34.
  • van der Heijden MJE, O’Flaherty LA, van Rosmalen J, de Vos S, McCulloch M, van Dijk M. Aromatherapy massage seems effective in critically ill children: an observational before-after study. Paediatr Neonatal Pain 2022;4(2):61-68.
  • van Ketel WG. Allergy to Matricaria chamomilla. Contact Dermatitis 1982;8:143.
  • van Ketel WG. Allergy to Matricaria chamomilla. Contact Dermatitis 1987;16:50-1.
  • Viola H, Wasowski C, Levi de Stein M, et al. Apigenin, a component of Matricaria recutita flowers, is a central benzodiazepine receptors-ligand with anxiolytic effects. Planta Med 1995;61:213-6.
  • Wang Y, Tang H, Nicholson JK, et al. A metabonomic strategy for the detection of the metabolic effects of chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.) ingestion. J Agric Food Chem 2005;53:191-6.
  • Weizman Z, Alkrinawi S, Goldfarb D, et al. Efficacy of herbal tea preparation in infantile colic. J Pediatr 1993;122(4):650-652.
  • Williams AS, Dove J, Krock JE, et al. Efficacy of Inhaled Essential Oil Use on Selected Symptoms Affecting Quality of Life in Patients With Cancer Receiving Infusion Therapies. Oncol Nurs Forum 2022;49(4):349-358.
  • Zeggwagh NA, Michel JB, Eddouks M. Vascular effects of aqueous extract of Chamaemelum nobile: in vitro pharmacological studies in rats. Clin Exp Hypertens 2013;35(3):200-6.
  • Zeggwagh NA, Moufid A, Michel JB, Eddouks M. Hypotensive effect of Chamaemelum nobile aqueous extract in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Clin Exp Hypertens 2009;31(5):440-50.
  • Zick SM, Wright BD, Sen A, Arnedt JT. Preliminary examination of the efficacy and safety of a standardized chamomile extract for chronic primary insomnia: a randomized placebo-controlled pilot study. BMC Complement Altern Med 2011;11:78.

Elderflower

  • Anon. Elderberry (Sambucus species). The Poison Plant Patch, Novia Scotia Museum, 2007. Available at: https://museum.gov.ns.ca/poison/?section=species&id=117 (Accessed 16 October 2009).
  • Chrubasik C, Maier T, Dawid C, et al. An observational study and quantification of the actives in a supplement with Sambucus nigra and Asparagus officinalis used for weight reduction. Phytother Res 2008;22:913-8.
  • Cunha S, Meireles D, Machado J. Sambucus nigra – a promising natural source for human health. Exp Pathol Health Sci. 2016;8(2):59-66.
  • Electronic Code of Federal Regulations. Title 21. Part 182 — Substances Generally Recognized As Safe. Available at: https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?CFRPart=182
  • European elder. Canadian Poisonous Plants Information System. Available at: https://www.cbif.gc.ca/pls/pp/ppack.jump?p_null=all&p_psn=121&p_type=all&p_sci=comm&p_x=px (Accessed 16 October 2009).
  • Forster-Waldl E, Marchetti M, Scholl I, Focke M, et al. Type I allergy to elderberry (Sambucus nigra) is elicited by a 33.2 kDa allergen with significant homology to ribosomal inactivating proteins. Clin Exp Allergy 2003;33:1703-10.
  • Gray AM, Abdel-Wahab YH, Flatt PR. The traditional plant treatment, Sambucus nigra (elder), exhibits insulin-like and insulin-releasing actions in vitro. J Nutr 2000;130:15-20.
  • Marz RW, Ismail C, Popp MA. Action profile and efficacy of a herbal combination preparation for the treatment of sinusitis. Wien Med Wochenschr 1999;149:202-8.
  • Melzer, J., Saller, R., Schapowal, A., and Brignoli, R. Systematic review of clinical data with BNO-101 (Sinupret) in the treatment of sinusitis. Forsch Komplement.Med (2006.) 2006;13(2):78-87.
  • Mikulic-Petkovsek M, Samoticha J, Eler K, Stampar F, Veberic R. Traditional elderflower beverages: a rich source of phenolic compounds with high antioxidant activity. J Agric Food Chem. 2015;63(5):1477-87.
  • Neubauer N, Marz RW. Placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind, clincal trial with Sinupret sugar coated tablets on the basis of a therapy with antibiotics and decongestant nasal drops in acute sinusitis. Phytomedicine 1994;1:177-81.
  • Peric A, Kovacevic SV, Gacesa D, Peric AV. Efficacy and safety of combined treatment of acute rhinosinusitis by herbal medicinal product Sinupret and mometasone furoate nasal spray. ENT Updates 2017;7(2):68-74.
  • Picon, P. D., Picon, R. V., Costa, A. F., Sander, G. B., Amaral, K. M., Aboy, A. L., and Henriques, A. T. Randomized clinical trial of a phytotherapic compound containing Pimpinella anisum, Foeniculum vulgare, Sambucus nigra, and Cassia augustifolia for chronic constipation. BMC.Complement Altern.Med. 2010;10:17.
  • Viapiana A, Wesolowski M. The phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of infusions of Sambucus nigra L. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2017;72(1):82-7.
  • Vlachojannis JE, Cameron M, Chrubasik S. A systematic review on the sambuci fructus effect and efficacy profiles. Phytother Res. 2010 Jan;24(1):1-8.

Green Tea

  • Abdelkawy KS, Abdelaziz RM, Abdelmageed AM, Donia AM, El-Khodary NM. Effects of green tea extract on atorvastatin pharmacokinetics in healthy volunteers. Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 2020;45(3):351-360.
  • Abe O, Ono T, Sato H, et al. Role of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate in the pharmacokinetic interaction between nadolol and green tea in healthy volunteers. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2018;74(6):775-83. doi: 10.1007/s00228-018-2436-2.
  • Abe SK, Saito E, Sawada N, et al. Green tea consumption and mortality in Japanese men and women: a pooled analysis of eight population-based cohort studies in Japan. Eur J Epidemiol. 2019 Oct;34(10):917-926.
  • Acheson KJ, Gremaud G, Meirim I, et al. Metabolic effects of caffeine in humans: lipid oxidation or futile cycling? Am J Clin Nutr 2004;79:40-6.
  • Adcocks C, Collin P, Buttle DJ. Catechins from green tea (Camellia sinensis) inhibit bovine and human cartilage proteoglycan and type II collagen degradation in vitro. J Nutr 2002;132:341-6.
  • Adcocks, C., Collin, P., and Buttle, D. J. Catechins from green tea (Camellia sinensis) inhibit bovine and human cartilage proteoglycan and type II collagen degradation in vitro. J Nutr. 2002;132(3):341-346.
  • Agarwal, A., Prasad, R., and Jain, A. Effect of green tea extract (catechins) in reducing oxidative stress seen in patients of pulmonary tuberculosis on DOTS Cat I regimen. Phytomedicine. 2010;17(1):23-27.
  • Ahmed S, Rahman A, Hasnain A, et al. Green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate inhibits the IL-1 beta-induced activity and expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and nitric oxide synthase-2 in human chondrocytes. Free Radic Biol Med 2002;33:1097-105.
  • Ahmed, S., Wang, N., Lalonde, M., Goldberg, V. M., and Haqqi, T. M. Green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) differentially inhibits interleukin-1 beta-induced expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 and -13 in human chondrocytes. J Pharmacol.Exp.Ther. 2004;308(2):767-773.
  • Ahn WS, Yoo J, Huh SW, et al. Protective effects of green tea extracts (polyphenon E and EGCG) on human cervical lesions. Eur J Cancer Prev 2003;12:383-90.
  • Al-Momen H, Hussein HK, Al-Attar Z, Hussein MJ. Green tea influence on iron overload in thalassemia intermedia patients: a randomized controlled trial. F1000Res. 2020;9:1136.
  • Al-Sowyan, N. S. Difference in leptin hormone response to nutritional status in normal adult male albino rats. Pak.J Biol.Sci. 1-15-2009;12(2):119-126.
  • Alemdaroglu, N. C., Dietz, U., Wolffram, S., Spahn-Langguth, H., and Langguth, P. Influence of green and black tea on folic acid pharmacokinetics in healthy volunteers: potential risk of diminished folic acid bioavailability. Biopharm.Drug Dispos. 2008;29(6):335-348.
  • Alexopoulos, N., Vlachopoulos, C., Aznaouridis, K., Baou, K., Vasiliadou, C., Pietri, P., Xaplanteris, P., Stefanadi, E., and Stefanadis, C. The acute effect of green tea consumption on endothelial function in healthy individuals. Eur.J Cardiovasc.Prev.Rehabil. 2008;15(3):300-305.
  • Ali M, Afzal M. A potent inhibitor of thrombin stimulated platelet thromboxane formation from unprocessed tea. Prostaglandins Leukot Med 1987;27:9-13.
  • Ali, M., Afzal, M., Gubler, C. J., and Burka, J. F. A potent thromboxane formation inhibitor in green tea leaves. Prostaglandins Leukot.Essent.Fatty Acids 1990;40(4):281-283.
  • Allen, N. E., Sauvaget, C., Roddam, A. W., Appleby, P., Nagano, J., Suzuki, G., Key, T. J., and Koyama, K. A prospective study of diet and prostate cancer in Japanese men. Cancer Causes Control 2004;15(9):911-920.
  • Alshabi AM, Alkahtani SA, Shaikh IA, Habeeb MS. Caffeine modulates pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles of pioglitazone in diabetic rats: Impact on therapeutics. Saudi Med J 2021;42(2):151-160.
  • American Academy of Pediatrics. The transfer of drugs and other chemicals into human milk. Pediatrics 2001;108:776-89.
  • Annaba F, Kumar P, Dudeja AK, et al. Green tea catechin EGCG inhibits ileal apical sodium bile acid transporter ASBT. Am.J Physiol Gastrointest.Liver Physiol 2010;298:G467-G473.
  • Antonello, M., Montemurro, D., Bolognesi, M., Di, Pascoli M., Piva, A., Grego, F., Sticchi, D., Giuliani, L., Garbisa, S., and Rossi, G. P. Prevention of hypertension, cardiovascular damage and endothelial dysfunction with green tea extracts. Am.J Hypertens. 2007;20(12):1321-1328.
  • Aqel RA, Zoghbi GJ, Trimm JR, et al. Effect of caffeine administered intravenously on intracoronary-administered adenosine-induced coronary hemodynamics in patients with coronary artery disease. Am J Cardiol 2004;93:343-6.
  • Ardlie NG, Glew G, Schultz BG, Schwartz CJ. Inhibition and reversal of platelet aggregation by methyl xanthines. Thromb Diath Haemorrh 1967;18:670-3.
  • Armidin RP, Yanti GN. Effectiveness of rinsing black tea compared to green tea in decreasing Streptococcus mutans. Open Access Maced J Med Sci. 2019;7(22):3799-3802.
  • Arts, I. C. A review of the epidemiological evidence on tea, flavonoids, and lung cancer. J Nutr. 2008;138(8):1561S-1566S.
  • Asbaghi O, Fouladvand F, Gonzalez MJ, Aghamohammadi V, Choghakhori R, Abbasnezhad A. Effect of green tea on anthropometric indices and body composition in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Complement Med Res. 2020:1-8.
  • Asbaghi O, Fouladvand F, Gonzalez MJ, Ashtary-Larky D, Choghakhori R, Abbasnezhad A. Effect of green tea on glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabetes Metab Syndr. 2020;15(1):23-31.
  • Asbaghi O, Fouladvand F, Moradi S, Ashtary-Larky D, Choghakhori R, Abbasnezhad A. Effect of green tea extract on lipid profile in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabetes Metab Syndr. 2020;14(4):293-301.
  • Ascherio A, Zhang SM, Hernan MA, et al. Prospective study of caffeine intake and risk of Parkinson’s disease in men and women. Proceedings 125th Ann Mtg Am Neurological Assn. Boston, MA: 2000;Oct 15-18:42 (abstract 53).
  • Auvichayapat, P., Prapochanung, M., Tunkamnerdthai, O., Sripanidkulchai, B. O., Auvichayapat, N., Thinkhamrop, B., Kunhasura, S., Wongpratoom, S., Sinawat, S., and Hongprapas, P. Effectiveness of green tea on weight reduction in obese Thais: A randomized, controlled trial. Physiol Behav 2-27-2008;93(3):486-491.
  • Avisar R, Avisar E, Weinberger D. Effect of coffee consumption on intraocular pressure. Ann Pharmacother 2002;36:992-5.
  • Awadalla, H. I., Ragab, M. H., Bassuoni, M. W., Fayed, M. T., and Abbas, M. O. A pilot study of the role of green tea use on oral health. Int.J.Dent.Hyg. 2011;9(2):110-116.
  • Baba Y, Inagaki S, Nakagawa S, Kaneko T, Kobayashi M, Takihara T. Effect of daily intake of green tea catechins on cognitive function in middle-aged and older subjects: A randomized, placebo-controlled study. Molecules. 2020;25(18):4265.
  • Baba Y, Inagaki S, Nakagawa S, Kobayashi M, Kaneko T, Takihara T. Effects of daily matcha and caffeine intake on mild acute psychological stress-related cognitive function in middle-aged and older adults: A randomized placebo-controlled study. Nutrients 2021;13(5):1700.
  • Babu, P. V. and Liu, D. Green tea catechins and cardiovascular health: an update. Curr.Med Chem. 2008;15(18):1840-1850.
  • Babu, P. V., Sabitha, K. E., Srinivasan, P., and Shyamaladevi, C. S. Green tea attenuates diabetes induced Maillard-type fluorescence and collagen cross-linking in the heart of streptozotocin diabetic rats. Pharmacol.Res. 2007;55(5):433-440.
  • Basu, A., Du, M., Sanchez, K., Leyva, M. J., Betts, N. M., Blevins, S., Wu, M., Aston, C. E., and Lyons, T. J. Green tea minimally affects biomarkers of inflammation in obese subjects with metabolic syndrome. Nutrition 2011;27(2):206-213.
  • Basu, A., Sanchez, K., Leyva, M. J., Wu, M., Betts, N. M., Aston, C. E., and Lyons, T. J. Green tea supplementation affects body weight, lipids, and lipid peroxidation in obese subjects with metabolic syndrome. J Am.Coll.Nutr. 2010;29(1):31-40.
  • Batista, Gde A., Cunha, C. L., Scartezini, M., von der, Heyde R., Bitencourt, M. G., and Melo, S. F. Prospective double-blind crossover study of Camellia sinensis (green tea) in dyslipidemias. Arq Bras.Cardiol. 2009;93(2):128-134.
  • Beach CA, Mays DC, Guiler RC, et al. Inhibition of elimination of caffeine by disulfiram in normal subjects and recovering alcoholics. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1986;39:265-70.
  • Bell DG, Jacobs I, Ellerington K. Effect of caffeine and ephedrine ingestion on anaerobic exercise performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2001;33:1399-403.
  • Belza, A., Toubro, S., and Astrup, A. The effect of caffeine, green tea and tyrosine on thermogenesis and energy intake. Eur.J Clin Nutr 2009;63(1):57-64.
  • Benowitz NL, Osterloh J, Goldschlager N, et al. Massive catecholamine release from caffeine poisoning. JAMA 1982;248:1097-8.
  • Bergman, J. and Schjott, J. Hepatitis caused by Lotus-f3? Basic Clin Pharmacol.Toxicol. 2009;104(5):414-416.
  • Bertipaglia de Santana, M., Mandarino, M. G., Cardoso, J. R., Dichi, I., Dichi, J. B., Camargo, A. E., Fabris, B. A., Rodrigues, R. J., Fatel, E. C., Nixdorf, S. L., Simao, A. N., Cecchini, R., and Barbosa, D. S. Association between soy and green tea (Camellia sinensis) diminishes hypercholesterolemia and increases total plasma antioxidant potential in dyslipidemic subjects. Nutrition 2008;24(6):562-568.
  • Bettuzzi S, Brausi M, Rizzi F, et al. Chemoprevention of human prostate cancer by oral administration of green tea catechins in volunteers with high-grade prostate intraepithelial neoplasia: a preliminary report from a one-year proof-of-principle study. Cancer Res 2006;66:1234-40.
  • Boehm, K., Borrelli, F., Ernst, E., Habacher, G., Hung, S. K., Milazzo, S., and Horneber, M. Green tea (Camellia sinensis) for the prevention of cancer. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2009;(3):CD005004.
  • Bogdanski, P., Suliburska, J., Szulinska, M., Stepien, M., Pupek-Musialik, D., and Jablecka, A. Green tea extract reduces blood pressure, inflammatory biomarkers, and oxidative stress and improves parameters associated with insulin resistance in obese, hypertensive patients. Nutr.Res. 2012;32(6):421-427.
  • Bonkovsky HL. Hepatotoxicity associated with supplements containing Chinese green tea (Camellia sinensis). Ann Intern Med 2006;144:68-71.
  • Booth SL, Madabushi HT, Davidson KW, et al. Tea and coffee brews are not dietary sources of vitamin K-1 (phylloquinone). J Am Diet Assoc 1995;95:82-3.
  • Bracken MB, Triche EW, Belanger K, et al. Association of maternal caffeine consumption with decrements in fetal growth. Am J Epidemiol 2003;157:456-66.
  • Bradley Pharmaceuticals. Veregen Prescribing Information. October 2006.
  • Briggs GB, Freeman RK, Yaffe SJ. Drugs in Pregnancy and Lactation. 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 1998.
  • Brown NJ, Ryder D, Branch RA. A pharmacodynamic interaction between caffeine and phenylpropanolamine. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1991;50:363-71.
  • Brown, A. L., Lane, J., Coverly, J., Stocks, J., Jackson, S., Stephen, A., Bluck, L., Coward, A., and Hendrickx, H. Effects of dietary supplementation with the green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate on insulin resistance and associated metabolic risk factors: randomized controlled trial. Br.J Nutr. 2009;101(6):886-894.
  • Brown, A. L., Lane, J., Holyoak, C., Nicol, B., Mayes, A. E., and Dadd, T. Health effects of green tea catechins in overweight and obese men: a randomised controlled cross-over trial. Br.J.Nutr. 2011;106(12):1880-1889.
  • Buscemi, S., Verga, S., Batsis, J. A., Donatelli, M., Tranchina, M. R., Belmonte, S., Mattina, A., Re, A., and Cerasola, G. Acute effects of coffee on endothelial function in healthy subjects. Eur.J Clin Nutr. 2010;64(5):483-489.
  • Bushman JL. Green tea and cancer in humans: a review of the literature. Nutr Cancer 1998;31:151-9.
  • Caldeira D, Martins C, Alves LB, Pereira H, Ferreira JJ, Costa J. Caffeine does not increase the risk of atrial fibrillation: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Heart. 2013;99(19):1383-9. doi: 10.1136/heartjnl-2013-303950.
  • Cannon ME, Cooke CT, McCarthy JS. Caffeine-induced cardiac arrhythmia: an unrecognised danger of healthfood products. Med J Aust 2001;174:520-1.
  • Cao Y, Cao R. Angiogenesis inhibited by drinking tea. Nature 1999;398:381.
  • Caraballo PJ, Heit JA, Atkinson EJ, et al. Long-term use of oral anticoagulants and the risk of fracture. Arch Intern Med 1999;159:1750-6.
  • Carbo M, Segura J, De la Torre R, et al. Effect of quinolones on caffeine disposition. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1989;45:234-40.
  • Cardoso GA, Salgado JM, Cesar Mde C, Donado-Pestana CM. The effects of green tea consumption and resistance training on body composition and resting metabolic rate in overweight or obese women. J Med Food. 2013 Feb;16(2):120-7.
  • Carrillo JA, Benitez J. Clinically significant pharmacokinetic interactions between dietary caffeine and medications. Clin Pharmacokinet 2000;39:127-53.
  • Castellanos FX, Rapoport JL. Effects of caffeine on development and behavior in infancy and childhood: a review of the published literature. Food Chem Toxicol 2002;40:1235-42.
  • Chan, C. C., Koo, M. W., Ng, E. H., Tang, O. S., Yeung, W. S., and Ho, P. C. Effects of Chinese green tea on weight, and hormonal and biochemical profiles in obese patients with polycystic ovary syndrome–a randomized placebo-controlled trial. J Soc Gynecol.Investig. 2006;13(1):63-68.
  • Chan, H. T., So, L. T., Li, S. W., Siu, C. W., Lau, C. P., and Tse, H. F. Effect of herbal consumption on time in therapeutic range of warfarin therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation. J.Cardiovasc.Pharmacol. 2011;58(1):87-90.
  • Chan, Y. C., Hosoda, K., Tsai, C. J., Yamamoto, S., and Wang, M. F. Favorable effects of tea on reducing the cognitive deficits and brain morphological changes in senescence-accelerated mice. J Nutr.Sci.Vitaminol.(Tokyo) 2006;52(4):266-273.
  • Chantre P, Lairon D. Recent findings of green tea extract AR25 (Exolise) and its activity for the treatment of obesity. Phytomedicine 2002;9:3-8.
  • Chava VK, Vedula BD. Thermo-reversible green tea catechin gel for local application in chronic periodontitis: a 4-week clinical trial. J Periodontol. 2013 Sep;84(9):1290-6.
  • Chen Y, Abe SK, Inoue M, et al. Green tea and coffee consumption and risk of kidney cancer in Japanese adults. Sci Rep 2022;12(1):20274.
  • Chen Y, Kang Z, Yan J, et al. Liu wei di huang wan, a well-known traditional Chinese medicine induces CYP1A2 while suppressing CYP2A6 and N-acetyltransferase 2 acivities in man. J Ethnopharmacol 2010;132:213-8.
  • Chen, Y. K., Lee, C. H., Wu, I. C., Liu, J. S., Wu, D. C., Lee, J. M., Goan, Y. G., Chou, S. H., Huang, C. T., Lee, C. Y., Hung, H. C., Yang, J. F., and Wu, M. T. Food intake and the occurrence of squamous cell carcinoma in different sections of the esophagus in Taiwanese men. Nutrition 2009;25(7-8):753-761.
  • Chen, Y., Xiao, C. Q., He, Y. J., Chen, B. L., Wang, G., Zhou, G., Zhang, W., Tan, Z. R., Cao, S., Wang, L. P., and Zhou, H. H. Genistein alters caffeine exposure in healthy female volunteers. Eur.J Clin.Pharmacol. 2011;67(4):347-353.
  • Cheng M, Hu Z, Lu X, Huang J, Gu D. Caffeine intake and atrial fibrillation incidence: dose response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Can J Cardiol. 2014 Apr;30(4):448-54. doi: 10.1016/j.cjca.2013.12.026. Epub 2014 2.
  • Cheng P, Zhang J, Liu W, et al. Tea consumption and cerebral hemorrhage risk: a meta-analysis. Acta Neurol Belg 2022;122(5):1247-1259.
  • Chien CF, Wu YT, Lee WC, et al. Herb-drug interaction of Andrographis paniculata extract and andrographolide on the pharmacokinetics of theophylline in rats. Chem Biol Interact 2010;184:458-65.
  • Childs, E. and de, Wit H. Enhanced mood and psychomotor performance by a caffeine-containing energy capsule in fatigued individuals. Exp.Clin Psychopharmacol. 2008;16(1):13-21.
  • Chiu KM. Efficacy of calcium supplements on bone mass in postmenopausal women. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 1999;54:M275-80.
  • Chiu, A. E., Chan, J. L., Kern, D. G., Kohler, S., Rehmus, W. E., and Kimball, A. B. Double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial of green tea extracts in the clinical and histologic appearance of photoaging skin. Dermatol Surg. 2005;31(7 Pt 2):855-860.
  • Choan, E., Segal, R., Jonker, D., Malone, S., Reaume, N., Eapen, L., and Gallant, V. A prospective clinical trial of green tea for hormone refractory prostate cancer: an evaluation of the complementary/alternative therapy approach. Urol.Oncol. 2005;23(2):108-113.
  • Choi JH, Chai YM, Joo GJ, et al. Effects of green tea catechin on polymorphonuclear leukocyte 5′-lipoxygenase activity, leukotriene B4 synthesis, and renal damage in diabetic rats. Ann Nutr Metab 2004;48:151-5.
  • Choi JS, Burm JP. Effects of oral epigallocatechin gallate on the pharmacokinetics of nicardipine in rats. Arch Pharm Res. 2009 Dec;32(12):1721-5.
  • Choi YT, Jung CH, Lee SR, et al. The green tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin gallate attenuates beta-amyloid-induced neurotoxicity in cultured hippocampal neurons. Life Sci 2001;70:603-14.
  • Choi, J. Y., Park, C. S., Kim, D. J., Cho, M. H., Jin, B. K., Pie, J. E., and Chung, W. G. Prevention of nitric oxide-mediated 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-induced Parkinson’s disease in mice by tea phenolic epigallocatechin 3-gallate. Neurotoxicology 2002;23(3):367-374.
  • Choi, K. C., Jung, M. G., Lee, Y. H., Yoon, J. C., Kwon, S. H., Kang, H. B., Kim, M. J., Cha, J. H., Kim, Y. J., Jun, W. J., Lee, J. M., and Yoon, H. G. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate, a histone acetyltransferase inhibitor, inhibits EBV-induced B lymphocyte transformation via suppression of RelA acetylation. Cancer Res. 1-15-2009;69(2):583-592.
  • Chong PW, Beah ZM, Grube B, Riede L. IQP-GC-101 reduces body weight and body fat mass: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Phytother Res. 2014 Oct;28(10):1520-6.
  • Chong SJ, Howard KA, Knox C. Hypokalaemia and drinking green tea: a literature review and report of 2 cases. BMJ Case Rep. 2016;2016. pii: bcr2016214425.
  • Chou T. Wake up and smell the coffee. Caffeine, coffee, and the medical consequences. West J Med 1992;157:544-53.
  • Chow, H. H., Cai, Y., Alberts, D. S., Hakim, I., Dorr, R., Shahi, F., Crowell, J. A., Yang, C. S., and Hara, Y. Phase I pharmacokinetic study of tea polyphenols following single-dose administration of epigallocatechin gallate and polyphenon E. Cancer Epidemiol.Biomarkers Prev. 2001;10(1):53-58.
  • Chow, H. H., Cai, Y., Hakim, I. A., Crowell, J. A., Shahi, F., Brooks, C. A., Dorr, R. T., Hara, Y., and Alberts, D. S. Pharmacokinetics and safety of green tea polyphenols after multiple-dose administration of epigallocatechin gallate and polyphenon E in healthy individuals. Clin Cancer Res. 8-15-2003;9(9):3312-3319.
  • Chow, H. H., Hakim, I. A., Vining, D. R., Crowell, J. A., Cordova, C. A., Chew, W. M., Xu, M. J., Hsu, C. H., Ranger-Moore, J., and Alberts, D. S. Effects of repeated green tea catechin administration on human cytochrome P450 activity. Cancer Epidemiol.Biomarkers Prev. 2006;15(12):2473-2476.
  • Chow, H. H., Hakim, I. A., Vining, D. R., Crowell, J. A., Ranger-Moore, J., Chew, W. M., Celaya, C. A., Rodney, S. R., Hara, Y., and Alberts, D. S. Effects of dosing condition on the oral bioavailability of green tea catechins after single-dose administration of Polyphenon E in healthy individuals. Clin Cancer Res 6-15-2005;11(12):4627-4633.
  • Chroscinska-Krawczyk, M., Jargiello-Baszak, M., Walek, M., Tylus, B., and Czuczwar, S. J. Caffeine and the anticonvulsant potency of antiepileptic drugs: experimental and clinical data. Pharmacol.Rep. 2011;63(1):12-18.
  • Chroscinska-Krawczyk, M., Ratnaraj, N., Patsalos, P. N., and Czuczwar, S. J. Effect of caffeine on the anticonvulsant effects of oxcarbazepine, lamotrigine and tiagabine in a mouse model of generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Pharmacol Rep. 2009;61(5):819-826.
  • Chu KO, Wang CC, Chu CY, et al. Pharmacokinetic studies of green tea catechins in maternal plasma and fetuses in rats. J Pharm Sci 2006;95:1372-81.
  • Chuarienthong, P., Lourith, N., and Leelapornpisid, P. Clinical efficacy comparison of anti-wrinkle cosmetics containing herbal flavonoids. Int J Cosmet.Sci. 2010;32(2):99-106.
  • Chung JH, Choi DH, Choi JS. Effects of oral epigallocatechin gallate on the oral pharmacokinetics of verapamil in rats. Biopharm Drug Dispos. 2009 Mar;30(2):90-3.
  • Chung LY, Cheung TC, Kong SK, et al. Induction of apoptosis by green tea catechins in human prostate cancer DU145 cells. Life Sci 2001;68:1207-14.
  • Chung M, Zhao N, Wang D, et al. Dose-response relation between tea consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality: A systematic review and meta-analysis of population-based studies. Adv Nutr. 2020;11(4):790-814.
  • Ciotta, L., Stracquadanio, M., Formuso, C., Di, Leo S., Ando, A., and Pagano, I. [Clinical effectiveness of N-oleyl-phosphatidyl-ethanolamine (NOPE) in obesity: our experience]. Minerva Gastroenterol.Dietol. 2011;57(3):323-331.
  • Clausen, T. Hormonal and pharmacological modification of plasma potassium homeostasis. Fundam.Clin Pharmacol 2010;24(5):595-605.
  • Colonetti L, Grande AJ, Toreti IR, Ceretta LB, da Rosa MI, Colonetti T. Green tea promotes weight loss in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Nutr Res 2022;104:1-9.
  • Cone EH, Lange R, Darwin WD. In vivo adulteration: excess fluid ingestion causes false-negative marijuana and cocaine urine test results. J Anal Toxicol 1998;22:460-73.
  • Conen, D., Chiuve, S. E., Everett, B. M., Zhang, S. M., Buring, J. E., and Albert, C. M. Caffeine consumption and incident atrial fibrillation in women. Am J Clin Nutr 2010;92(3):509-514.
  • Correa A, Stolley A, Liu Y. Prenatal tea consumption and risks of anencephaly and spina bifida. Ann Epidemiol 2000;10:476-7.
  • Crew KD, Brown P, Greenlee H, Bevers TB, Arun B, Hudis C, McArthur HL, Chang J, Rimawi M, Vornik L, Cornelison TL, Wang A, Hibshoosh H, Ahmed A, Terry MB, Santella RM, Lippman SM, Hershman DL. Phase IB randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, dose escalation study of polyphenon E in women with hormone receptor-negative breast cancer. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2012 Sep;5(9):1144-54.
  • Cronin JR. Green tea extract stokes thermogenesis. Alternative and Complementary Therapies 2000;296-300.
  • Cronin JR. Green tea extract stokes thermogenesis: will it replace ephedra? Altern Comp Ther 2000;6:296-300.
  • da Costa Santos, C. M., de Mattos Pimenta, C. A., and Nobre, M. R. A systematic review of topical treatments to control the odor of malignant fungating wounds. J Pain Symptom.Manage. 2010;39(6):1065-1076.
  • Dagan, Y. and Doljansky, J. T. Cognitive performance during sustained wakefulness: A low dose of caffeine is equally effective as modafinil in alleviating the nocturnal decline. Chronobiol.Int. 2006;23(5):973-983.
  • Dalbo, V. J., Roberts, M. D., Stout, J. R., and Kerksick, C. M. Effect of gender on the metabolic impact of a commercially available thermogenic drink. J Strength.Cond.Res 2010;24(6):1633-1642.
  • Daniel, W. A., Syrek, M., Rylko, Z., and Kot, M. Effects of phenothiazine neuroleptics on the rate of caffeine demethylation and hydroxylation in the rat liver. Pol.J Pharmacol 2001;53(6):615-621.
  • Darweesh RS, El-Elimat T, Zayed A, et al. The effect of grape seed and green tea extracts on the pharmacokinetics of imatinib and its main metabolite, N-desmethyl imatinib, in rats. BMC Pharmacol Toxicol. 2020;21(1):77.View abstract.
  • Das, A., Banik, N. L., and Ray, S. K. Flavonoids activated caspases for apoptosis in human glioblastoma T98G and U87MG cells but not in human normal astrocytes. Cancer 1-1-2010;116(1):164-176.
  • de Maat MP, Pijl H, Kluft C, Princen HM. Consumption of black and green tea had no effect on inflammation, haemostasis and endothelial markers in smoking healthy individuals. Eur J Clin Nutr 2000;54:757-63.
  • Del, Rio D., Calani, L., Cordero, C., Salvatore, S., Pellegrini, N., and Brighenti, F. Bioavailability and catabolism of green tea flavan-3-ols in humans. Nutrition 1-14-2010.
  • Dell’Aica, I., Dona, M., Tonello, F., Piris, A., Mock, M., Montecucco, C., and Garbisa, S. Potent inhibitors of anthrax lethal factor from green tea. EMBO Rep. 2004;5(4):418-422.
  • Deshpande A, Deshpande N, Raol R, Patel K, Jaiswal V, Wadhwa M. Effect of green tea, ginger plus green tea, and chlorhexidine mouthwash on plaque-induced gingivitis: A randomized clinical trial. J Indian Soc Periodontol 2021;25(4):307-312.
  • Devika, P. T. and Stanely Mainzen, Prince P. (-)Epigallocatechin-gallate (EGCG) prevents mitochondrial damage in isoproterenol-induced cardiac toxicity in albino Wistar rats: a transmission electron microscopic and in vitro study. Pharmacol.Res. 2008;57(5):351-357.
  • Dews PB, Curtis GL, Hanford KJ, O’Brien CP. The frequency of caffeine withdrawal in a population-based survey and in a controlled, blinded pilot experiment. J Clin Pharmacol 1999;39:1221-32.
  • Dews PB, O’Brien CP, Bergman J. Caffeine: behavioral effects of withdrawal and related issues. Food Chem Toxicol 2002;40:1257-61.
  • Di, Pierro F., Menghi, A. B., Barreca, A., Lucarelli, M., and Calandrelli, A. Greenselect Phytosome as an adjunct to a low-calorie diet for treatment of obesity: a clinical trial. Altern.Med Rev. 2009;14(2):154-160.
  • Diepvens, K., Kovacs, E. M., Vogels, N., and Westerterp-Plantenga, M. S. Metabolic effects of green tea and of phases of weight loss. Physiol Behav 1-30-2006;87(1):185-191.
  • Dixit S, Stein PK, Dewland TA, Dukes JW, Vittinghoff E, Heckbert SR, Marcus GM. Consumption of Caffeinated Products and Cardiac Ectopy. J Am Heart Assoc. 2016 26;5(1). pii: e002503. doi: 10.1161/JAHA.115.002503.
  • Dong X, Gu Y, Rayamajhi S, et al. Green tea consumption and risk of depressive symptoms: Results from the TCLSIH Cohort Study. J Affect Disord 2022;310:183-188.
  • Donovan JL, Chavin KD, Devane CL, et al. Green tea (Camellia sinensis) extract does not alter cytochrome P450 3A4 or 2D6 activity in healthy volunteers. Drug Metab Dispos 2004;32:906-8.
  • Donovan, J. L., Devane, C. L., Chavin, K. D., Oates, J. C., Njoku, C., Patrick, K. S., Fiorini, R. N., and Markowitz, J. S. Oral administration of a decaffeinated green tea (Camellia sinensis) extract did not alter urinary 8-epi-prostaglandin F(2 alpha), a biomarker for in-vivo lipid peroxidation. J Pharm Pharmacol 2005;57(10):1365-1369.
  • Dostal AM, Arikawa A, Espejo L, Kurzer MS. Long-term supplementation of green tea extract does not modify adiposity or bone mineral density in a randomized trial of overweight and obese postmenopausal women. J Nutr. 2016;146(2):256-64.
  • Dostal AM, Samavat H, Bedell S, et al. The safety of green tea extract supplementation in postmenopausal women at risk for breast cancer: results of the Minnesota Green Tea Trial. Food Chem Toxicol. 2015 Sep;83:26-35.
  • Dreher HM. The effect of caffeine reduction on sleep quality and well-being in persons with HIV. J Psychosom Res 2003;54:191-8.
  • Drug Record: Green Tea (Camellia Sinesis). LiverTox: National Institutes of Health, U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, March 2014. https://livertox.nlm.nih.gov//GreenTea.htm. Accessed November 20, 2017.
  • Dryden GW, Lam A, Beatty K, Qazzaz HH, McClain CJ. A pilot study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of an oral dose of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate-rich polyphenon E in patients with mild to moderate ulcerative colitis. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2013 Aug;19(9):1904-12.
  • Du, X., Huang, X., Huang, C., Wang, Y., and Zhang, Y. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) enhances the therapeutic activity of a dental adhesive. J.Dent. 2012;40(6):485-492.
  • Dufresne CJ and Farnworth ER. A review of latest research findings on the health promotion properties of tea. Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 2001;12:404-421.
  • Dulloo AG, Duret C, Rohrer D, et al. Efficacy of a green tea extract rich in catechin polyphenols and caffeine in increasing 24-h energy expenditure and fat oxidation in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 1999;70:1040-5.
  • Dulloo, A. G. and Miller, D. S. The thermogenic properties of ephedrine/methylxanthine mixtures: animal studies. Am J Clin Nutr 1986;43(3):388-394.
  • Dulloo, A. G., Seydoux, J., Girardier, L., Chantre, P., and Vandermander, J. Green tea and thermogenesis: interactions between catechin-polyphenols, caffeine and sympathetic activity. Int J Obes.Relat Metab Disord. 2000;24(2):252-258.
  • Dunne, E. F., Friedman, A., Datta, S. D., Markowitz, L. E., and Workowski, K. A. Updates on human papillomavirus and genital warts and counseling messages from the 2010 Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines. Clin.Infect.Dis. 2011;53 Suppl 3:S143-S152.
  • Durlach PJ. The effects of a low dose of caffeine on cognitive performance. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 1998;140:116-9.
  • Durrant KL. Known and hidden sources of caffeine in drug, food, and natural products. J Am Pharm Assoc 2002;42:625-37.
  • Egert S, Tereszczuk J, Wein S, et al. Simultaneous ingestion of dietary proteins reduces the bioavailability of galloylated catechins from green tea in humans. Eur J Nutr. 2013 Feb;52(1):281-8.
  • Eichenberger, P., Colombani, P. C., and Mettler, S. Effects of 3-week consumption of green tea extracts on whole-body metabolism during cycling exercise in endurance-trained men. Int J Vitam.Nutr.Res. 2009;79(1):24-33.
  • Eichenberger, P., Mettler, S., Arnold, M., and Colombani, P. C. No effects of three-week consumption of a green tea extract on time trial performance in endurance-trained men. Int J Vitam.Nutr.Res. 2010;80(1):54-64.
  • Electronic Code of Federal Regulations. Title 21. Part 182 — Substances Generally Recognized As Safe. Available at: https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?CFRPart=182
  • Elmets CA, Singh D, Tubesing K, et al. Cutaneous photoprotection from ultraviolet injury by green tea polyphenols. J Am Acad Dermatol 2001;44:425-32.
  • Emami H, Nikoobin F, Roayaei M, Ziya HR. Double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled study to evaluate the effectiveness of green tea in preventing acute gastrointestinal complications due to radiotherapy. J Res Med Sci. 2014;19(5):445-50.
  • Engdal, S. and Nilsen, O. G. In vitro inhibition of CYP3A4 by herbal remedies frequently used by cancer patients. Phytother.Res. 2009;23(7):906-912.
  • Erba, D., Riso, P., Bordoni, A., Foti, P., Biagi, P. L., and Testolin, G. Effectiveness of moderate green tea consumption on antioxidative status and plasma lipid profile in humans. J Nutr Biochem 2005;16(3):144-149.
  • Ernest, D., Chia, M., and Corallo, C. E. Profound hypokalaemia due to Nurofen Plus and Red Bull misuse. Crit Care Resusc. 2010;12(2):109-110.
  • Eshghpour M, Mortazavi H, Mohammadzadeh Rezaei N, Nejat A. Effectiveness of green tea mouthwash in postoperative pain control following surgical removal of impacted third molars: double blind randomized clinical trial. Daru. 2013 Jul 18;21(1):59.
  • Eskenazi B. Caffeine—filtering the facts. N Engl J Med 1999;341:1688-9.
  • Essmat A, Hussein MS. Green tea extract for mild-to-moderate diabetic peripheral neuropathy A randomized controlled trial. Complement Ther Clin Pract 2021;43:101317.
  • Farabegoli F, Papi A, Bartolini G, Ostan R, Orlandi M. (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate downregulates Pg-P and BCRP in a tamoxifen resistant MCF-7 cell line. Phytomedicine. 2010 Apr;17(5):356-62.
  • Favreau, J. T., Ryu, M. L., Braunstein, G., Orshansky, G., Park, S. S., Coody, G. L., Love, L. A., and Fong, T. L. Severe hepatotoxicity associated with the dietary supplement LipoKinetix. Ann.Intern.Med. 4-16-2002;136(8):590-595.
  • FDA. Letter updating the green tea and risk of breast cancer and prostate cancer health claim. April 2012. Available at: http://wayback.archive-it.org/7993/20171114183707/https://www.fda.gov/Food/IngredientsPackagingLabeling/LabelingNutrition/ucm301644.htm. Accessed January 28, 2019.
  • FDA. Proposed rule: dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids. Available at: www.verity.fda.gov (Accessed 25 January 2000).
  • Federico, A., Tiso, A., and Loguercio, C. A case of hepatotoxicity caused by green tea. Free Radic.Biol Med 8-1-2007;43(3):474.
  • Fernandes O, Sabharwal M, Smiley T, et al. Moderate to heavy caffeine consumption during pregnancy and relationship to spontaneous abortion and abnormal fetal growth: a meta-analysis. Reprod Toxicol 1998;12:435-44.
  • Ferrini RL, Barrett-Connor E. Caffeine intake and endogenous sex steroid levels in postmenopausal women. The Rancho Bernardo Study. Am J Epidemiol 1996:144:642-4.
  • Filimonova AA, Ziganshina LE, Ziganshin AU, Chichirov AA. On the possibility of patient phenotyping on the basis of cytochrome p-450 1A2 isoenzyme activity using caffeine as the test substrate. Eksp Klin Farmakol 2009;72:61-5.
  • Filippini T, Malavolti M, Borrelli F, et al. Green tea (Camellia sinensis) for the prevention of cancer. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020;3(3):CD005004.
  • Forrest WH Jr, Bellville JW, Brown BW Jr. The interaction of caffeine with pentobarbital as a nighttime hypnotic. Anesthesiology 1972;36:37-41.
  • Foster S, Duke JA. Eastern/Central Medicinal Plants. New York, NY: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1990.
  • Frank, J., George, T. W., Lodge, J. K., Rodriguez-Mateos, A. M., Spencer, J. P., Minihane, A. M., and Rimbach, G. Daily consumption of an aqueous green tea extract supplement does not impair liver function or alter cardiovascular disease risk biomarkers in healthy men. J Nutr 2009;139(1):58-62.
  • Freese, R., Basu, S., Hietanen, E., Nair, J., Nakachi, K., Bartsch, H., and Mutanen, M. Green tea extract decreases plasma malondialdehyde concentration but does not affect other indicators of oxidative stress, nitric oxide production, or hemostatic factors during a high-linoleic acid diet in healthy females. Eur.J Nutr. 1999;38(3):149-157.
  • Fuhr, U., Strobl, G., Manaut, F., Anders, E. M., Sorgel, F., Lopez-de-Brinas, E., Chu, D. T., Pernet, A. G., Mahr, G., Sanz, F., and . Quinolone antibacterial agents: relationship between structure and in vitro inhibition of the human cytochrome P450 isoform CYP1A2. Mol.Pharmacol. 1993;43(2):191-199.
  • Fukino, Y., Ikeda, A., Maruyama, K., Aoki, N., Okubo, T., and Iso, H. Randomized controlled trial for an effect of green tea-extract powder supplementation on glucose abnormalities. Eur.J Clin Nutr 2008;62(8):953-960.
  • Fukino, Y., Shimbo, M., Aoki, N., Okubo, T., and Iso, H. Randomized controlled trial for an effect of green tea consumption on insulin resistance and inflammation markers. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol.(Tokyo) 2005;51(5):335-342.
  • Fukushima, Y., Ohie, T., Yonekawa, Y., Yonemoto, K., Aizawa, H., Mori, Y., Watanabe, M., Takeuchi, M., Hasegawa, M., Taguchi, C., and Kondo, K. Coffee and green tea as a large source of antioxidant polyphenols in the Japanese population. J Agric.Food Chem. 2-25-2009;57(4):1253-1259.
  • Gahreman D, Heydari M, Boutcher Y, Freund J, Boutcher S. The effect of green tea ingestion and interval sprinting exercise on the body composition of overweight males: A randomized trial. Nutrients. 2016;8(8). pii: E510.
  • Gallo E, Maggini V, Berardi M, Pugi A, Notaro R, Talini G, Vannozzi G, Bagnoli S, Forte P, Mugelli A, Annese V, Firenzuoli F, Vannacci A. Is green tea a potential trigger for autoimmune hepatitis? Phytomedicine. 2013 Oct 15;20(13):1186-9.
  • Gao M, Ma W, Chen XB, Chang ZW, Zhang XD, Zhang MZ. Meta-analysis of green tea drinking and the prevalence of gynecological tumors in women. Asia Pac J Public Health. 2013 Jul;25(4 Suppl):43S-8S.
  • Gao, Y. T., McLaughlin, J. K., Blot, W. J., Ji, B. T., Dai, Q., and Fraumeni, J. F., Jr. Reduced risk of esophageal cancer associated with green tea consumption. J Natl.Cancer Inst. 6-1-1994;86(11):855-858.
  • Garbisa S, Biggin S, Cavallarin N, et al. Tumor invasion: molecular shears blunted by green tea. Nat Med 1999;5:1216.
  • Garcia FA, Cornelison T, Nuño T, Greenspan DL, Byron JW, Hsu CH, Alberts DS, Chow HH. Results of a phase II randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of Polyphenon E in women with persistent high-risk HPV infection and low-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Gynecol Oncol. 2014 Feb;132(2):377-82.
  • Gasior, M., Borowicz, K., Buszewicz, G., Kleinrok, Z., and Czuczwar, S. J. Anticonvulsant activity of phenobarbital and valproate against maximal electroshock in mice during chronic treatment with caffeine and caffeine discontinuation. Epilepsia 1996;37(3):262-268.
  • Gasior, M., Swiader, M., Przybylko, M., Borowicz, K., Turski, W. A., Kleinrok, Z., and Czuczwar, S. J. Felbamate demonstrates low propensity for interaction with methylxanthines and Ca2+ channel modulators against experimental seizures in mice. Eur.J Pharmacol 7-10-1998;352(2-3):207-214.
  • Gawande, S., Kale, A., and Kotwal, S. Effect of nutrient mixture and black grapes on the pharmacokinetics of orally administered (-)epigallocatechin-3-gallate from green tea extract: a human study. Phytother.Res. 2008;22(6):802-808.
  • Geleijnse JM, Launer LJ, van der Kuip DA, et al. Inverse association of tea and flavonoid intakes with incident myocardial infarction: the Rotterdam Study. Am J Clin Nutr 2002;75:880-6.
  • Gianfredi V, Nucci D, Abalsamo A, et al. Green Tea Consumption and Risk of Breast Cancer and Recurrence-A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies. Nutrients. 2018;10(12). pii: E1886.
  • Gleason JL, Sundaram R, Mitro SD, et al. Association of maternal caffeine consumption during pregnancy with child growth. JAMA Netw Open. 2022;5(10):e2239609.
  • Gloro R, Hourmand-Ollivier I, Mosquet B, et al. Fulminant hepatitis during self-medication with hydroalcoholic extract of green tea. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2005;17:1135-7.
  • Goh BC, Reddy NJ, Dandamudi UB, et al. An evaluation of the drug interaction potential of pazopanib, an oral vascular endothelial growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, using a modified Cooperstown 5+1 cocktail in patients with advanced solid tumors. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2010;88:652-9.
  • Golden ED, Lam PY, Kardosh A, et al. Green tea polyphenols block the anticancer effects of bortezomib and other boronic acid-based proteasome inhibitors. Blood 2009;113:5927-37.
  • Gorski, J. C., Huang, S. M., Pinto, A., Hamman, M. A., Hilligoss, J. K., Zaheer, N. A., Desai, M., Miller, M., and Hall, S. D. The effect of echinacea (Echinacea purpurea root) on cytochrome P450 activity in vivo. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2004;75(1):89-100.
  • Graham HN. Green tea composition, consumption, and polyphenol chemistry. Prev Med 1992;21:334-50.
  • Grandjean AC, Reimers KJ, Bannick KE, Haven MC. The effect of caffeinated, non-caffeinated, caloric and non-caloric beverages on hydration. J Am Coll Nutr 2000;19:591-600.
  • Green Tea Extract-Containing Natural Health Products – Rare Risk of Serious Liver Injury. Recalls & alerts. November 15, 2017. http://healthycanadians.gc.ca/recall-alert-rappel-avis/hc-sc/2017/65100a-eng.php. Accessed November 10, 2017.
  • Gregersen, N. T., Bitz, C., Krog-Mikkelsen, I., Hels, O., Kovacs, E. M., Rycroft, J. A., Frandsen, E., Mela, D. J., and Astrup, A. Effect of moderate intakes of different tea catechins and caffeine on acute measures of energy metabolism under sedentary conditions. Br.J Nutr. 2009;102(8):1187-1194.
  • Gronroos, N. N. and Alonso, A. Diet and risk of atrial fibrillation – epidemiologic and clinical evidence -. Circ.J 2010;74(10):2029-2038.
  • Gross, G. [Polyphenon E. A new topical therapy for condylomata acuminata]. Hautarzt 2008;59(1):31-35.
  • Gross, G., Meyer, K. G., Pres, H., Thielert, C., Tawfik, H., and Mescheder, A. A randomized, double-blind, four-arm parallel-group, placebo-controlled Phase II/III study to investigate the clinical efficacy of two galenic formulations of Polyphenon E in the treatment of external genital warts. J Eur.Acad.Dermatol.Venereol. 2007;21(10):1404-1412.
  • Guo Y, Zhi F, Chen P, et al. Green tea and the risk of prostate cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017;96(13):e6426.
  • Gupta S, Saha B, Giri AK. Comparative antimutagenic and anticlastogenic effects of green tea and black tea: a review. Mutat Res 2002;512:37-65.
  • Hagg S, Spigset O, Mjorndal T, Dahlqvist R. Effect of caffeine on clozapine pharmacokinetics in healthy volunteers. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2000;49:59-63.
  • Haghighatdoost F, Hariri M. The effect of green tea on inflammatory mediators: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. Phytother Res. 2019 Sep;33(9):2274-2287.
  • Hakim, I. A., Chow, H. H., and Harris, R. B. Green tea consumption is associated with decreased DNA damage among GSTM1-positive smokers regardless of their hOGG1 genotype. J Nutr. 2008;138(8):1567S-1571S.
  • Hakim, I. A., Harris, R. B., Brown, S., Chow, H. H., Wiseman, S., Agarwal, S., and Talbot, W. Effect of increased tea consumption on oxidative DNA damage among smokers: a randomized controlled study. J.Nutr. 2003;133(10):3303S-3309S.
  • Hakim, I. A., Harris, R. B., Chow, H. H., Dean, M., Brown, S., and Ali, I. U. Effect of a 4-month tea intervention on oxidative DNA damage among heavy smokers: role of glutathione S-transferase genotypes. Cancer Epidemiol.Biomarkers Prev. 2004;13(2):242-249.
  • Haller CA, Benowitz NL, Jacob P 3rd. Hemodynamic effects of ephedra-free weight-loss supplements in humans. Am J Med 2005;118:998-1003.
  • Haller CA, Benowitz NL. Adverse cardiovascular and central nervous system events associated with dietary supplements containing ephedra alkaloids. N Engl J Med 2000;343:1833-8.
  • Haller CA, Jacob P 3rd, Benowitz NL. Pharmacology of ephedra alkaloids and caffeine after single-dose dietary supplement use. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2002;71:421-32.
  • Haqqi TM, Anthony DD, Gupta S, et al. Prevention of collagen-induced arthritis in mice by a polyphenolic fraction from green tea. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1999;96:4524-9.
  • Haque, A. M., Hashimoto, M., Katakura, M., Tanabe, Y., Hara, Y., and Shido, O. Long-term administration of green tea catechins improves spatial cognition learning ability in rats. J Nutr. 2006;136(4):1043-1047.
  • Harder S, Fuhr U, Staib AH, Wolff T. Ciprofloxacin-caffeine: a drug interaction established using in vivo and in vitro investigations. Am J Med 1989;87:89S-91S.
  • Hartley L, Flowers N, Holmes J, Clarke A, Stranges S, Hooper L, Rees K. Green and black tea for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 Jun 18;6:CD009934.
  • Hartter, S., Nordmark, A., Rose, D. M., Bertilsson, L., Tybring, G., and Laine, K. Effects of caffeine intake on the pharmacokinetics of melatonin, a probe drug for CYP1A2 activity. Br.J.Clin.Pharmacol. 2003;56(6):679-682.
  • Hasani-Ranjbar, S., Nayebi, N., Moradi, L., Mehri, A., Larijani, B., and Abdollahi, M. The efficacy and safety of herbal medicines used in the treatment of hyperlipidemia; a systematic review. Curr.Pharm.Des 2010;16(26):2935-2947.
  • Hatano, B., Kojima, A., Sata, T., and Katano, H. Virus detection using Viro-Adembeads, a rapid capture system for viruses, and plaque assay in intentionally virus-contaminated beverages. Jpn.J Infect.Dis. 2010;63(1):52-54.
  • Hattori, M., Kusumoto, I. T., Namba, T., Ishigami, T., and Hara, Y. Effect of tea polyphenols on glucan synthesis by glucosyltransferase from Streptococcus mutans. Chem.Pharm Bull.(Tokyo) 1990;38(3):717-720.
  • Hauber, I., Hohenberg, H., Holstermann, B., Hunstein, W., and Hauber, J. The main green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate counteracts semen-mediated enhancement of HIV infection. Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A 6-2-2009;106(22):9033-9038.
  • He, Y. H. and Kies, C. Green and black tea consumption by humans: impact on polyphenol concentrations in feces, blood and urine. Plant Foods Hum.Nutr. 1994;46(3):221-229.
  • Health Canada. Health Product Info Watch. October 2016; 5-6. Available at: http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/dhp-mps/medeff/bulletin/hpiw-ivps_2016-10-eng.php#a15.
  • Healy DP, Polk RE, Kanawati L, et al. Interaction between oral ciprofloxacin and caffeine in normal volunteers. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1989;33:474-8.
  • Heck AM, DeWitt BA, Lukes AL. Potential interactions between alternative therapies and warfarin. Am J Health Syst Pharm 2000;57:1221-7.
  • Heinrich, U., Moore, C. E., De, Spirt S., Tronnier, H., and Stahl, W. Green tea polyphenols provide photoprotection, increase microcirculation, and modulate skin properties of women. J.Nutr. 2011;141(6):1202-1208.
  • Hemelt, M., Hu, Z., Zhong, Z., Xie, L. P., Wong, Y. C., Tam, P. C., Cheng, K. K., Ye, Z., Bi, X., Lu, Q., Mao, Y., Zhong, W. D., and Zeegers, M. P. Fluid intake and the risk of bladder cancer: results from the South and East China case-control study on bladder cancer. Int.J.Cancer 8-1-2010;127(3):638-645.
  • Henning M, Fajardo-Lira C, Lee HW, et al. Catechin content of 18 teas and a green tea extract supplement correlates with the antioxidant capacity. Nutr Cancer 2003;45:226-35.
  • Henning, S. M., Aronson, W., Niu, Y., Conde, F., Lee, N. H., Seeram, N. P., Lee, R. P., Lu, J., Harris, D. M., Moro, A., Hong, J., Pak-Shan, L., Barnard, R. J., Ziaee, H. G., Csathy, G., Go, V. L., Wang, H., and Heber, D. Tea polyphenols and theaflavins are present in prostate tissue of humans and mice after green and black tea consumption. J Nutr 2006;136(7):1839-1843.
  • Henning, S. M., Niu, Y., Lee, N. H., Thames, G. D., Minutti, R. R., Wang, H., Go, V. L., and Heber, D. Bioavailability and antioxidant activity of tea flavanols after consumption of green tea, black tea, or a green tea extract supplement. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;80(6):1558-1564.
  • Henrotin, Y., Lambert, C., Couchourel, D., Ripoll, C., and Chiotelli, E. Nutraceuticals: do they represent a new era in the management of osteoarthritis? – a narrative review from the lessons taken with five products. Osteoarthritis.Cartilage. 2011;19(1):1-21.
  • Hertog MGL, Sweetnam PM, Fehily AM, et al. Antioxidant flavonols and ischemic heart disease in a Welsh population of men: the Caerphilly Study. Am J Clin Nutr 1997;65:1489-94.
  • Heseltine D, Dakkak M, Woodhouse K, et al. The effect of caffeine on postprandial hypotension in the elderly. J Am Geriatr Soc 1991;39:160-4.
  • Hill, A. M., Coates, A. M., Buckley, J. D., Ross, R., Thielecke, F., and Howe, P. R. Can EGCG reduce abdominal fat in obese subjects? J Am Coll Nutr 2007;26(4):396S-402S.
  • Hindmarch I, Quinlan PT, Moore KL, Parkin C. The effects of black tea and other beverages on aspects of cognition and psychomotor performance. Psychopharmacol 1998;139:230-8.
  • Hirano-Ohmori, R., Takahashi, R., Momiyama, Y., Taniguchi, H., Yonemura, A., Tamai, S., Umegaki, K., Nakamura, H., Kondo, K., and Ohsuzu, F. Green tea consumption and serum malondialdehyde-modified LDL concentrations in healthy subjects. J Am Coll.Nutr 2005;24(5):342-346.
  • Hirano, R., Momiyama, Y., Takahashi, R., Taniguchi, H., Kondo, K., Nakamura, H., and Ohsuzu, F. Comparison of green tea intake in Japanese patients with and without angiographic coronary artery disease. Am.J Cardiol. 11-15-2002;90(10):1150-1153.
  • Hirao, K., Yumoto, H., Nakanishi, T., Mukai, K., Takahashi, K., Takegawa, D., and Matsuo, T. Tea catechins reduce inflammatory reactions via mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways in toll-like receptor 2 ligand-stimulated dental pulp cells. Life Sci. 4-24-2010;86(17-18):654-660.
  • Hirasawa, M., Takada, K., Makimura, M., and Otake, S. Improvement of periodontal status by green tea catechin using a local delivery system: a clinical pilot study. J Periodontal Res 2002;37(6):433-438.
  • Ho CK, Choi SW, Siu PM, Benzie IF. Effects of single dose and regular intake of green tea (Camellia sinensis) on DNA damage, DNA repair, and heme oxygenase-1 expression in a randomized controlled human supplementation study. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2014 Jun;58(6):1379-83.
  • Hodgson JM, Croft KD, Mori TA, et al. Regular ingestion of tea does not inhibit in vivo lipid peroxidation in humans. J Nutr 2002;132:55-8.
  • Hodgson JM, Puddey IB, Burke V, et al. Effects on blood pressure of drinking green and black tea. J Hypertens 1999;17:457-63.
  • Hodgson JM, Puddey IB, Croft KD, et al. Acute effects of ingestion of black and green tea on lipoprotein oxidation. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71:1103-7.
  • Holmgren P, Norden-Pettersson L, Ahlner J. Caffeine fatalities–four case reports. Forensic Sci Int 2004;139:71-3.
  • Horiba, N., Maekawa, Y., Ito, M., Matsumoto, T., and Nakamura, H. A pilot study of Japanese green tea as a medicament: antibacterial and bactericidal effects. J Endod. 1991;17(3):122-124.
  • Horner NK, Lampe JW. Potential mechanisms of diet therapy for fibrocystic breast conditions show inadequate evidence of effectiveness. J Am Diet Assoc 2000;100:1368-80.
  • Howell LL, Coffin VL, Spealman RD. Behavioral and physiological effects of xanthines in nonhuman primates. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 1997;129:1-14.
  • Hsu, C. H., Liao, Y. L., Lin, S. C., Tsai, T. H., Huang, C. J., and Chou, P. Does supplementation with green tea extract improve insulin resistance in obese type 2 diabetics? A randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled clinical trial. Altern.Med.Rev. 2011;16(2):157-163.
  • Hsu, C. H., Tsai, T. H., Kao, Y. H., Hwang, K. C., Tseng, T. Y., and Chou, P. Effect of green tea extract on obese women: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Clin Nutr 2008;27(3):363-370.
  • Hsu, J., Skover, G., and Goldman, M. P. Evaluating the efficacy in improving facial photodamage with a mixture of topical antioxidants. J Drugs Dermatol. 2007;6(11):1141-1148.
  • Huang H, Guo Q, Qiu C, Huang B, Fu X, Yao J, Liang J, Li L, Chen L, Tang K, Lin L, Lu J, Bi Y, Ning G, Wen J, Lin C, Chen G. Associations of green tea and rock tea consumption with risk of impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance in Chinese men and women. PLoS One. 2013 Nov 18;8(11):e79214.
  • Huang S, Xu Q, Liu L, et al. Effect of green tea and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate on the pharmacokinetics of rosuvastatin. Curr Drug Metab. 2020.
  • Huang YQ, Lu X, Min H, et al. Green tea and liver cancer risk: A meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies in Asian populations. Nutrition. 2016;32(1):3-8.
  • Huang, J., Frohlich, J., and Ignaszewski, A. P. The impact of dietary changes and dietary supplements on lipid profile. Can J Cardiol 2011;27(4):488-505.
  • Hunt, K. J., Hung, S. K., and Ernst, E. Botanical extracts as anti-aging preparations for the skin: a systematic review. Drugs Aging 12-1-2010;27(12):973-985.
  • Hursel, R. and Westerterp-Plantenga, M. S. Green tea catechin plus caffeine supplementation to a high-protein diet has no additional effect on body weight maintenance after weight loss. Am J Clin Nutr 2009;89(3):822-830.
  • Ichinose, T., Nomura, S., Someya, Y., Akimoto, S., Tachiyashiki, K., and Imaizumi, K. Effect of endurance training supplemented with green tea extract on substrate metabolism during exercise in humans. Scand.J Med Sci.Sports 3-10-2010.
  • Ide K, Yamada H, Matsushita K, Ito M, Nojiri K, Toyoizumi K, Matsumoto K, Sameshima Y. Effects of green tea gargling on the prevention of influenza infection in high school students: a randomized controlled study. PLoS One. 2014 May 16;9(5):e96373.
  • Ikeda S, Kanoya Y, Nagata S. Effects of a foot bath containing green tea polyphenols on interdigital tinea pedis. Foot (Edinb). 2013 Jun-Sep;23(2-3):58-62.
  • Imai K. Nakachi K. Cross-sectional study of effects of drinking green tea on cardiovascular and liver diseases. BMJ 1995;310:693-6.
  • Imai, K., Suga, K., and Nakachi, K. Cancer-preventive effects of drinking green tea among a Japanese population. Prev.Med 1997;26(6):769-775.
  • Inami, S., Takano, M., Yamamoto, M., Murakami, D., Tajika, K., Yodogawa, K., Yokoyama, S., Ohno, N., Ohba, T., Sano, J., Ibuki, C., Seino, Y., and Mizuno, K. Tea catechin consumption reduces circulating oxidized low-density lipoprotein. Int Heart J 2007;48(6):725-732.
  • Infante S, Baeza ML, Calvo M, et al. Anaphylaxis due to caffeine. Allergy 2003;58:681-2.
  • Inoue M, Tajima K, Hirose K, et al. Tea and coffee consumption and the risk of digestive tract cancers: data from a comparative case-referent study in Japan. Cancer Causes Control 1998;9:209-16.
  • Inoue M, Tajima K, Mizutani M, et al. Regular consumption of green tea and the risk of breast cancer recurrence: follow-up study from the Hospital-based Epidemiologic Research Program at Aichi Cancer Center (HERPACC), Japan. Cancer Lett 2001;167:175-82.
  • Inoue, M., Robien, K., Wang, R., Van Den Berg, D. J., Koh, W. P., and Yu, M. C. Green tea intake, MTHFR/TYMS genotype and breast cancer risk: the Singapore Chinese Health Study. Carcinogenesis 2008;29(10):1967-1972.
  • Institute of Medicine. Caffeine for the Sustainment of Mental Task Performance: Formulations for Military Operations. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2001. Available at: http://books.nap.edu/books/0309082587/html/index.html.
  • Isbrucker RA, Edwards JA, Wolz E, et al. Safety studies on epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) preparations. Part 3: teratogenicity and reproductive toxicity studies in rats. Food Chem Toxicol 2006;44:651-61.
  • Iso H, Date C, Wakai K, et al; JACC Study Group. The relationship between green tea and total caffeine intake and risk for self-reported type 2 diabetes among Japanese adults. Ann Intern Med 2006;144:554-62.
  • Isomura T, Suzuki S, Origasa H, et al. Liver-related safety assessment of green tea extracts in humans: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2016;70(11):1221-1229.
  • Izzo, A. A. and Ernst, E. Interactions between herbal medicines and prescribed drugs: an updated systematic review. Drugs 2009;69(13):1777-1798.
  • Jang EH, Choi JY, Park CS, Lee SK, Kim CE, Park HJ, Kang JS, Lee JW, Kang JH. Effects of green tea extract administration on the pharmacokinetics of clozapine in rats. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2005 Mar;57(3):311-6.
  • Janjua, R., Munoz, C., Gorell, E., Rehmus, W., Egbert, B., Kern, D., and Chang, A. L. A two-year, double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial of oral green tea polyphenols on the long-term clinical and histologic appearance of photoaging skin. Dermatol.Surg. 2009;35(7):1057-1065.
  • Jankiewicz, K., Chroscinska-Krawczyk, M., Blaszczyk, B., and Czuczwar, S. J. [Caffeine and antiepileptic drugs: experimental and clinical data]. Przegl.Lek. 2007;64(11):965-967.
  • Jankun, J., Selman, S. H., Swiercz, R., and Skrzypczak-Jankun, E. Why drinking green tea could prevent cancer. Nature 6-5-1997;387(6633):561.
  • Janssens PL, Hursel R, Westerterp-Plantenga MS. Long-term green tea extract supplementation does not affect fat absorption, resting energy expenditure, and body composition in adults. J Nutr. 2015;145(5):864-70.
  • Jatoi A, Ellison N, Burch PA, et al. A phase II trial of green tea in the treatment of patients with androgen independent metastatic prostate carcinoma. Cancer 2003;97:1442-6.
  • Javaid, A. and Bonkovsky, H. L. Hepatotoxicity due to extracts of Chinese green tea (Camellia sinensis): a growing concern. J Hepatol 2006;45(2):334-335.
  • Jefferson JW. Lithium tremor and caffeine intake: two cases of drinking less and shaking more. J Clin Psychiatry 1988;49:72-3.
  • Jenkins J, Williams D, Deng Y, et al. Eltrombopag, an oral thrombopoietin receptor agonist, has no impact on the pharmacokinetic profile of probe drugs for cytochrome P450 isoenzymes CYP3A4, CYP1A2, CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 in healthy men: a cocktail analysis. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2010;66:67-76.
  • Ji BT, Chow WH, Yang G, et al. The influence of cigarette smoking, alcohol, and green tea consumption on the risk of carcinoma of the cardia and distal stomach in Shanghai, China. Cancer 1996;77:2449-57.
  • Ji, B. T., Chow, W. H., Hsing, A. W., McLaughlin, J. K., Dai, Q., Gao, Y. T., Blot, W. J., and Fraumeni, J. F., Jr. Green tea consumption and the risk of pancreatic and colorectal cancers. Int J Cancer 1-27-1997;70(3):255-258.
  • Jia H, Xu A, Yuan J, et al. Experimental study on cytochrome P450 enzymes after receiving ferment powder caterpillar fungus. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2009;34:2079-82.
  • Jian L, Xie LP, Lee AH, Binns CW. Protective effect of green tea against prostate cancer: a case-control study in southeast China. Int J Cancer 2004;108:130-5.
  • Jiménez-Encarnación E, Ríos G, Muñoz-Mirabal A, Vilá LM. Euforia-induced acute hepatitis in a patient with scleroderma. BMJ Case Rep 2012;2012.
  • Jimenez-Saenz M, Martinez-Sanchez, MDC. Acute hepatitis associated with the use of green tea infusions. J Hepatol 2006;44:616-9.
  • Jin, X., Zheng, R. H., and Li, Y. M. Green tea consumption and liver disease: a systematic review. Liver Int 2008;28(7):990-996.
  • Joeres R, Klinker H, Heusler H, et al. Influence of mexiletine on caffeine elimination. Pharmacol Ther 1987;33:163-9.
  • Josic, J., Olsson, A. T., Wickeberg, J., Lindstedt, S., and Hlebowicz, J. Does green tea affect postprandial glucose, insulin and satiety in healthy subjects: a randomized controlled trial. Nutr.J. 2010;9:63.
  • Jowko, E., Sacharuk, J., Balasinska, B., Ostaszewski, P., Charmas, M., and Charmas, R. Green tea extract supplementation gives protection against exercise-induced oxidative damage in healthy men. Nutr.Res. 2011;31(11):813-821.
  • Juliano LM, Griffiths RR. A critical review of caffeine withdrawal: empirical validation of symptoms and signs, incidence, severity, and associated features. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2004;176:1-29.
  • Jurgens, T. M., Whelan, A. M., Killian, L., Doucette, S., Kirk, S., and Foy, E. Green tea for weight loss and weight maintenance in overweight or obese adults. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2012;12:CD008650.
  • Kaegi E. Unconventional therapies for cancer: 2. Green tea. The Task Force on Alternative Therapies of the Canadian Breast Cancer Research Initiative. CMAJ 1998;158:1033-5.
  • Kajita N, Miyama S, Kinoshita K, Yoshida K, Narita M. Green tea-induced anaphylaxis: The first pediatric case report. Allergol Int 2021;70(4):507-508.
  • Kakuta, Y., Nakaya, N., Nagase, S., Fujita, M., Koizumi, T., Okamura, C., Niikura, H., Ohmori, K., Kuriyama, S., Tase, T., Ito, K., Minami, Y., Yaegashi, N., and Tsuji, I. Case-control study of green tea consumption and the risk of endometrial endometrioid adenocarcinoma. Cancer Causes Control 2009;20(5):617-624.
  • Kalus, U., Kiesewetter, H., and Radtke, H. Effect of CYSTUS052 and green tea on subjective symptoms in patients with infection of the upper respiratory tract. Phytother.Res. 2010;24(1):96-100.
  • Kao YH, Hiipakka RA, Liao S. Modulation of endocrine systems and food intake by green tea epigallocatechin gallate. Endocrinology 2000;141:980-7.
  • Kaplan A, Zelicha H, Meir AY, et al. The effect of a high-polyphenol Mediterranean diet (GREEN-MED) combined with physical activity on age-related brain atrophy: the DIRECT PLUS randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr 2022.
  • Kapoor MP, Sugita M, Fukuzawa Y, Timm D, Ozeki M, Okubo T. Green tea catechin association with ultraviolet radiation-induced erythema: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Molecules 2021;26(12):3702.
  • Karth, A., Holoshitz, N., Kavinsky, C. J., Trohman, R., and McBride, B. F. A case report of atrial fibrillation potentially induced by hydroxycut: a multicomponent dietary weight loss supplement devoid of sympathomimetic amines. J.Pharm.Pract. 2010;23(3):245-249.
  • Katiyar SK, Ahmad N, Mukhtar H. Green Tea and Skin. Arch Dermatol 2000;136:989-94.
  • Katiyar SK, Mohan RR, Agarwal R, Mukhtar H. Protection against induction of mouse skin papillomas with low and high risk of conversion to malignancy by green tea polyphenols. Carcinogenesis 1997;18:497-502.
  • Katiyar, S. K., Matsui, M. S., Elmets, C. A., and Mukhtar, H. Polyphenolic antioxidant (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate from green tea reduces UVB-induced inflammatory responses and infiltration of leukocytes in human skin. Photochem.Photobiol. 1999;69(2):148-153.
  • Kato Y, Miyazaki T, Kano T, et al. Involvement of influx and efflux transport systems in gastrointestinal absorption of celiprolol. J Pharm Sci 2009;98:2529-39.
  • Kato, M. T., Leite, A. L., Hannas, A. R., and Buzalaf, M. A. Gels containing MMP inhibitors prevent dental erosion in situ. J Dent.Res. 2010;89(5):468-472.
  • Kemberling JK, Hampton JA, Keck RW, et al. Inhibition of bladder tumor growth by the green tea derivative epigallocatechin-3-gallate. J Urol 2003;170:773-6.
  • Key, T. J., Sharp, G. B., Appleby, P. N., Beral, V., Goodman, M. T., Soda, M., and Mabuchi, K. Soya foods and breast cancer risk: a prospective study in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan. Br J Cancer 1999;81(7):1248-1256.
  • Kheirabadi Z, Mehrabani M, Sarafzadeh F, Dabaghzadeh F, Ahmadinia N. Green tea as an adjunctive therapy for treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis in women: A randomized clinical trial. Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2019;34:13-16.
  • Khokhar S, Magnusdottir SG. Total phenol, catechin, and caffeine contents of teas commonly consumed in the United kingdom. J Agric Food Chem 2002;50:565-70.
  • Kikuchi, N., Ohmori, K., Shimazu, T., Nakaya, N., Kuriyama, S., Nishino, Y., Tsubono, Y., and Tsuji, I. No association between green tea and prostate cancer risk in Japanese men: the Ohsaki Cohort Study. Br.J Cancer 8-7-2006;95(3):371-373.
  • Kim A, Chiu A, Barone MK, et al. Green tea catechins decrease total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J.Am.Diet.Assoc. 2011;111:1720-1729.
  • Kim H, Lee J, Oh JH, et al. Protective effect of green tea consumption on colorectal cancer varies by lifestyle factors. Nutrients. 2019;11(11):2612.
  • Kim S, Park TH, Kim WI, Park S, Kim JH, Cho MK. The effects of green tea on acne vulgaris: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. Phytother Res. 2021;35(1):374-383.
  • Kim TE, Ha N, Kim Y, et al. Effect of epigallocatechin-3-gallate, major ingredient of green tea, on the pharmacokinetics of rosuvastatin in healthy volunteers. Drug Des Devel Ther. 2017;11:1409-1416.
  • Kim, W., Jeong, M. H., Cho, S. H., Yun, J. H., Chae, H. J., Ahn, Y. K., Lee, M. C., Cheng, X., Kondo, T., Murohara, T., and Kang, J. C. Effect of green tea consumption on endothelial function and circulating endothelial progenitor cells in chronic smokers. Circ.J 2006;70(8):1052-1057.
  • Kishimoto Y, Saita E, Taguchi C, et al. Associations between green tea consumption and coffee consumption and the prevalence of coronary artery disease. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2020;66(3):237-245.
  • Kjaerstad MB, Nielsen F, Nohr-Jensen L, et al. Systemic uptake of miconazole during vaginal suppository use and effect on CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 associated enzyme activities in women. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2010;66:1189-97.
  • Klaunig JE, Xu Y, Han C, et al. The effect of tea consumption on oxidative stress in smokers and nonsmokers. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1999;220:249-54.
  • Klebanoff MA, Levine RJ, DerSimonian R, et al. Maternal serum paraxanthine, a caffeine metabolite, and the risk of spontaneous abortion. N Engl J Med 1999;341:1639-44.
  • Kockler DR, McCarthy MW, Lawson CL. Seizure activity and unresponsiveness after hydroxycut ingestion. Pharmacotherapy 2001;21:647-51.
  • Kohler, M., Pavy, A., and van den Heuvel, C. The effects of chewing versus caffeine on alertness, cognitive performance and cardiac autonomic activity during sleep deprivation. J Sleep Res. 2006;15(4):358-368.
  • Komatsu, T., Nakamori, M., Komatsu, K., Hosoda, K., Okamura, M., Toyama, K., Ishikura, Y., Sakai, T., Kunii, D., and Yamamoto, S. Oolong tea increases energy metabolism in Japanese females. J Med Invest 2003;50(3-4):170-175.
  • Komorita Y, Iwase M, Fujii H, et al. Additive effects of green tea and coffee on all-cause mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: the Fukuoka Diabetes Registry. BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care. 2020;8(1):e001252.
  • Kondo K, Suzuki K, Washio M, et al. Association between coffee and green tea intake and pneumonia among the Japanese elderly: a case-control study. Sci Rep 2021;11(1):5570.
  • Kono S, Ikeda M, Tokudome S, Kuratsune M. A case-control study of gastric cancer and diet in northern Kyushu, Japan. Jpn J Cancer Res 1988;79:1067-74.
  • Kot M, Daniel WA. Caffeine as a marker substrate for testing cytochrome P450 activity in human and rat. Pharmacol Rep 2008;60:789-97.
  • Kot, M. and Daniel, W. A. Effect of diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) and ticlopidine on CYP1A2 activity and caffeine metabolism: an in vitro comparative study with human cDNA-expressed CYP1A2 and liver microsomes. Pharmacol Rep. 2009;61(6):1216-1220.
  • Kovacs EM, Lejeune MP, Nijs I, Westerterp-Plantenga MS. Effects of green tea on weight maintenance after body-weight loss. Br J Nutr 2004;91:431-7.
  • Krahwinkel T, Willershausen B. The effect of sugar-free green tea chew candies on the degree of inflammation of the gingiva. Eur J Med Res 2000;5:463-7.
  • Kristen, A. V., Lehrke, S., Buss, S., Mereles, D., Steen, H., Ehlermann, P., Hardt, S., Giannitsis, E., Schreiner, R., Haberkorn, U., Schnabel, P. A., Linke, R. P., Rocken, C., Wanker, E. E., Dengler, T. J., Altland, K., and Katus, H. A. Green tea halts progression of cardiac transthyretin amyloidosis: an observational report. Clin.Res.Cardiol. 2012;101(10):805-813.
  • Kubota K, Sakurai T, Nakazato K, et al. [Effect of green tea on iron absorption in elderly patients with iron deficiency anemia]. Nippon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi 1990;27:555-8.
  • Kundu T, Dey S, Roy M, et al. Induction of apoptosis in human leukemia cells by black tea and its polyphenol theaflavin. Cancer Lett 2005;230:111-21.
  • Kuo, Y. C., Yu, C. L., Liu, C. Y., Wang, S. F., Pan, P. C., Wu, M. T., Ho, C. K., Lo, Y. S., Li, Y., and Christiani, D. C. A population-based, case-control study of green tea consumption and leukemia risk in southwestern Taiwan. Cancer Causes Control 2009;20(1):57-65.
  • Kurahashi, N., Inoue, M., Iwasaki, M., Sasazuki, S., and Tsugane, S. Coffee, green tea, and caffeine consumption and subsequent risk of bladder cancer in relation to smoking status: a prospective study in Japan. Cancer Sci. 2009;100(2):294-91.
  • Kurahashi, N., Sasazuki, S., Iwasaki, M., Inoue, M., and Tsugane, S. Green tea consumption and prostate cancer risk in Japanese men: a prospective study. Am J Epidemiol. 1-1-2008;167(1):71-77.
  • Kuriyama S, Hozawa A, Ohmori K, et al. Green tea consumption and cognitive function: a cross-sectional study from the Tsurugaya Project 1. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006;83(2):355-61.
  • Kuriyama S, Shimazu T, Ohmori K, et al. Green tea consumption and mortality due to cardiovascular disease, cancer, and all-cause mortality. JAMA 2006;296:1255-65.
  • Kuriyama, S. The relation between green tea consumption and cardiovascular disease as evidenced by epidemiological studies. J Nutr. 2008;138(8):1548S-1553S.
  • Kushima, Y., Iida, K., Nagaoka, Y., Kawaratani, Y., Shirahama, T., Sakaguchi, M., Baba, K., Hara, Y., and Uesato, S. Inhibitory effect of (-)-epigallocatechin and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate against heregulin beta1-induced migration/invasion of the MCF-7 breast carcinoma cell line. Biol.Pharm.Bull. 2009;32(5):899-904.
  • Kushiyama, M., Shimazaki, Y., Murakami, M., and Yamashita, Y. Relationship between intake of green tea and periodontal disease. J Periodontol. 2009;80(3):372-377.
  • Kynast-Gales SA, Massey LK. Effect of caffeine on circadian excretion of urinary calcium and magnesium. J Am Coll Nutr. 1994;13:467-72.
  • L’Allemain G. [Multiple actions of EGCG, the main component of green tea]. Bull Cancer 1999;86:721-4.
  • Lagier D, Nee L, Guieu R, et al. Peri-operative oral caffeine does not prevent postoperative atrial fibrillation after heart valve surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass: a randomized controlled clinical trial. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2018 Apr 26.
  • Lake CR, Rosenberg DB, Gallant S, et al. Phenylpropanolamine increases plasma caffeine levels. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1990;47:675-85.
  • Lambert JD, Kwon SJ, Ju J, Bose M, Lee MJ, Hong J, Hao X, Yang CS. Effect of genistein on the bioavailability and intestinal cancer chemopreventive activity of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate. Carcinogenesis. 2008 Oct;29(10):2019-24.
  • Lane JD, Barkauskas CE, Surwit RS, Feinglos MN. Caffeine impairs glucose metabolism in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2004;27:2047-8.
  • Lang, M., Henson, R., Braconi, C., and Patel, T. Epigallocatechin-gallate modulates chemotherapy-induced apoptosis in human cholangiocarcinoma cells. Liver Int 2009;29(5):670-677.
  • Langley, P. C. A cost-effectiveness analysis of sinecatechins in the treatment of external genital warts. J.Med.Econ. 2010;13(1):1-7.
  • Larsson SC, Wolk A. Tea consumption and ovarian cancer risk in a population-based cohort. Arch Intern Med 2005;165:2683-6.
  • Laurie, S. A., Miller, V. A., Grant, S. C., Kris, M. G., and Ng, K. K. Phase I study of green tea extract in patients with advanced lung cancer. Cancer Chemother.Pharmacol. 2005;55(1):33-38.
  • Lee DB, Song HJ, Paek YJ, Park KH, Seo YG, Noh HM. Relationship between regular green tea intake and osteoporosis in Korean postmenopausal women: A nationwide study. Nutrients 2021;14(1):87.
  • Lee IP, Kim YH, Kang MH, et al. Chemopreventive effect of green tea (Camellia sinensis) against cigarette smoke induced mutations in humans. J Cell Biochem Suppl 1997;27:68-75.
  • Lee LS, Kim SH, Kim YB, Kim YC. Quantitative analysis of major constituents in green tea with different plucking periods and their antioxidant activity. Molecules. 2014 Jul 1;19(7):9173-86.
  • Leenen R, Roodenburg AJ, Tijburg LB, et al. A single dose of tea with or without milk increases plasma antioxidant activity in humans. Eur J Clin Nutr 2000;54:87-92.
  • Leson CL, McGuigan MA, Bryson SM. Caffeine overdose in an adolescent male. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 1988;26:407-15.
  • Leung LK, Su Y, Chen R, et al. Theaflavins in black tea and catechins in green tea are equally effective antioxidants. J Nutr 2001;131:2248-51.
  • Levites, Y., Amit, T., Mandel, S., and Youdim, M. B. Neuroprotection and neurorescue against Abeta toxicity and PKC-dependent release of nonamyloidogenic soluble precursor protein by green tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate. FASEB J 2003;17(8):952-954.
  • Li G, Zhang Y, Thabane L, et al. Effect of green tea supplementation on blood pressure among overweight and obese adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Hypertens. 2015;33(2):243-54.
  • Li N, Sun Z, Han C, Chen J. The chemopreventive effects of tea on human oral precancerous mucosa lesions. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1999;220:218-24.
  • Li Q, Li J, Liu S, et al. A Comparative Proteomic Analysis of the Buds and the Young Expanding Leaves of the Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis L.). Int J Mol Sci. 2015;16(6):14007-38.
  • Li ZY, Tan YT, Liu DK, Gao LF, Li HL, Xiang YB. Cumulative consumption of tea is associated with lower risk of liver cancer: Updated results from the Shanghai Women’s Health Study. Int J Cancer 2023;152(6):1115-1123.
  • Li, G. X., Chen, Y. K., Hou, Z., Xiao, H., Jin, H., Lu, G., Lee, M. J., Liu, B., Guan, F., Yang, Z., Yu, A., and Yang, C. S. Pro-oxidative activities and dose-response relationship of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate in the inhibition of lung cancer cell growth: a comparative study in vivo and in vitro. Carcinogenesis 2010;31(5):902-910.
  • Li, R., Huang, Y. G., Fang, D., and Le, W. D. (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced microglial activation and protects against inflammation-mediated dopaminergic neuronal injury. J Neurosci.Res. 12-1-2004;78(5):723-731.
  • Liang G, Tang A, Lin X, Li L, Zhang S, Huang Z, Tang H, Li QQ. Green tea catechins augment the antitumor activity of doxorubicin in an in vivo mouse model for chemoresistant liver cancer. Int J Oncol. 2010 Jul;37(1):111-23.
  • Liatsos, G. D., Moulakakis, A., Ketikoglou, I., and Klonari, S. Possible green tea-induced thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. Am.J Health Syst.Pharm. 4-1-2010;67(7):531-534.
  • Lin Y, Shi D, Su B, et al. The effect of green tea supplementation on obesity: A systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Phytother Res. 2020.
  • Lin YW, Hu ZH, Wang X, Mao QQ, Qin J, Zheng XY, Xie LP. Tea consumption and prostate cancer: an updated meta-analysis. World J Surg Oncol. 2014 Feb 14;12:38.
  • Lin, C. L., Chen, T. F., Chiu, M. J., Way, T. D., and Lin, J. K. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) suppresses beta-amyloid-induced neurotoxicity through inhibiting c-Abl/FE65 nuclear translocation and GSK3 beta activation. Neurobiol.Aging 2009;30(1):81-92.
  • Liu G, Mi XN, Zheng XX, Xu YL, Lu J, Huang XH. Effects of tea intake on blood pressure: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Br J Nutr. 2014 Oct 14;112(7):1043-54.
  • Liu K, Zhou R, Wang B, Chen K, Shi LY, Zhu JD, Mi MT. Effect of green tea on glucose control and insulin sensitivity: a meta-analysis of 17 randomized controlled trials. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 Aug;98(2):340-8.
  • Liu S, Lu H, Zhao Q, et al. Theaflavin derivatives in black tea and catechin derivatives in green tea inhibit HIV-1 entry by targeting gp41. Biochim Biophys Acta 2005;1723:270-81.
  • Liu X, Xu W, Cai H, et al. Green tea consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes in Chinese adults: the Shanghai Women’s Health Study and the Shanghai Men’s Health Study. Int J Epidemiol. 2018;47(6):1887-1896.
  • Liu, T. T. and Liau, J. Caffeine increases the linearity of the visual BOLD response. Neuroimage. 2-1-2010;49(3):2311-2317.
  • Lloyd T, Johnson-Rollings N, Eggli DF, et al. Bone status among postmenopausal women with different habitual caffeine intakes: a longitudinal investigation. J Am Coll Nutr 2000;19:256-61.
  • Locher R, Emmanuele L, Suter PM, et al. Green tea polyphenols inhibit human vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation stimulated by native low-density lipoprotein. Eur J Pharmacol 2002;434:1-7.
  • Lonac, M. C., Richards, J. C., Schweder, M. M., Johnson, T. K., and Bell, C. Influence of Short-Term Consumption of the Caffeine-Free, Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate Supplement, Teavigo, on Resting Metabolism and the Thermic Effect of Feeding. Obesity.(Silver.Spring) 8-19-2010.
  • Lopez-Garcia, E., Rodriguez-Artalejo, F., Rexrode, K. M., Logroscino, G., Hu, F. B., and van Dam, R. M. Coffee consumption and risk of stroke in women. Circulation 3-3-2009;119(8):1116-1123.
  • Lorenz M, Jochmann N, von Krosigk A, et al. Addition of milk prevents vascular protective effects of tea. Eur Heart J 2007;28:219-23.
  • Lou FQ, Zhang MF, Zhang XG, et al. A study on tea-pigment in prevention of atherosclerosis. Chin Med J (Engl) 1989;102:579-83.
  • Lu K, Gray MA, Oliver C, et al. The acute effects of L-theanine in comparison with alprazolam on anticipatory anxiety in humans. Hum Psychopharmacol 2004;19:457-65.
  • Luszczki, J. J., Zuchora, M., Sawicka, K. M., Kozinska, J., and Czuczwar, S. J. Acute exposure to caffeine decreases the anticonvulsant action of ethosuximide, but not that of clonazepam, phenobarbital and valproate against pentetrazole-induced seizures in mice. Pharmacol Rep. 2006;58(5):652-659.
  • MacKenzie, T., Comi, R., Sluss, P., Keisari, R., Manwar, S., Kim, J., Larson, R., and Baron, J. A. Metabolic and hormonal effects of caffeine: randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial. Metabolism 2007;56(12):1694-1698.
  • Maeda-Yamamoto, M., Ema, K., Monobe, M., Shibuichi, I., Shinoda, Y., Yamamoto, T., and Fujisawa, T. The efficacy of early treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis with benifuuki green tea containing O-methylated catechin before pollen exposure: an open randomized study. Allergol.Int 2009;58(3):437-444.
  • Magalhaes, A. C., Wiegand, A., Rios, D., Hannas, A., Attin, T., and Buzalaf, M. A. Chlorhexidine and green tea extract reduce dentin erosion and abrasion in situ. J Dent. 2009;37(12):994-998.
  • Mahdavi-Roshan M, Salari A, Ghorbani Z, Ashouri A. The effects of regular consumption of green or black tea beverage on blood pressure in those with elevated blood pressure or hypertension: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Complement Ther Med. 2020;51:102430.
  • Mahmood, T., Akhtar, N., Khan, B. A., Shoaib Khan, H. M., and Saeed, T. Changes in skin mechanical properties after long-term application of cream containing green tea extract. Aging Clin.Exp.Res. 2011;23(5-6):333-336.
  • Mahmoodi M, Hosseini R, Kazemi A, Ofori-Asenso R, Mazidi M, Mazloomi SM. Effects of green tea or green tea catechin on liver enzymes in healthy individuals and people with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. Phytother Res. 2020;34(7):1587-1598.
  • Maki, K. C., Reeves, M. S., Farmer, M., Yasunaga, K., Matsuo, N., Katsuragi, Y., Komikado, M., Tokimitsu, I., Wilder, D., Jones, F., Blumberg, J. B., and Cartwright, Y. Green tea catechin consumption enhances exercise-induced abdominal fat loss in overweight and obese adults. J Nutr 2009;139(2):264-270.
  • Mangine, G. T., Gonzalez, A. M., Wells, A. J., McCormack, W. P., Fragala, M. S., Stout, J. R., and Hoffman, J. R. The effect of a dietary supplement (N-oleyl-phosphatidyl-ethanolamine and epigallocatechin gallate) on dietary compliance and body fat loss in adults who are overweight: a double-blind, randomized control trial. Lipids Health Dis. 2012;11:127.
  • Mansour-Ghanaei F, Hadi A, Pourmasoumi M, et al. Green tea as a safe alternative approach for nonalcoholic fatty liver treatment: A systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials. Phytother Res 2018;32(10):1876-84. doi: 10.1002/ptr.6130.
  • Maron DJ, Lu GP, Cai NS, et al. Cholesterol-lowering effect of a theaflavin-enriched green tea extract: a randomized controlled trial. Arch Intern Med 2003;163:1448-53.
  • Martimianaki G, Alicandro G, Pelucchi C, et al. Tea consumption and gastric cancer: a pooled analysis from the Stomach cancer Pooling (StoP) Project consortium. Br J Cancer 2022;127(4):726-734.
  • Martinez-Sierra, C., Rendon, Unceta P., and Martin, Herrera L. [Acute hepatitis after green tea ingestion]. Med Clin (Barc.) 6-17-2006;127(3):119.
  • Massey LK, Whiting SJ. Caffeine, urinary calcium, calcium metabolism and bone. J Nutr 1993;123:1611-4.
  • Massey LK. Is caffeine a risk factor for bone loss in the elderly? Am J Clin Nutr 2001;74:569-70.
  • Masuda S, Maeda-Yamamoto M, Usui S, Fujisawa T. ‘Benifuuki’ green tea containing o-methylated catechin reduces symptoms of Japanese cedar pollinosis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Allergol Int. 2014 Jun;63(2):211-7.
  • Matsumoto, K., Yamada, H., Takuma, N., Niino, H., and Sagesaka, Y. M. Effects of green tea catechins and theanine on preventing influenza infection among healthcare workers: a randomized controlled trial. BMC.Complement Altern.Med. 2011;11:15.
  • Matsuo, C., Harashima, N., Sekine, K., Kanou, M., Kanazawa, M., Ishikawa, K., Nara, Y., and Ikeda, H. [Influence of commercial soft drinks or green tea intake to occult blood and sugar tests with urinalysis reagent strips]. Rinsho Byori 2009;57(9):834-841.
  • Matsushita N, Nakanishi Y, Watanabe Y, et al. Association of coffee, green tea, and caffeine with the risk of dementia in older Japanese people. J Am Geriatr Soc 2021;69(12):3529-3544.
  • Matsuyama, T., Tanaka, Y., Kamimaki, I., Nagao, T., and Tokimitsu, I. Catechin safely improved higher levels of fatness, blood pressure, and cholesterol in children. Obesity.(Silver.Spring) 2008;16(6):1338-1348.
  • May DC, Jarboe CH, VanBakel AB, Williams WM. Effects of cimetidine on caffeine disposition in smokers and nonsmokers. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1982;31:656-61.
  • Mays, D. C., Camisa, C., Cheney, P., Pacula, C. M., Nawoot, S., and Gerber, N. Methoxsalen is a potent inhibitor of the metabolism of caffeine in humans. Clin.Pharmacol.Ther. 1987;42(6):621-626.
  • Mazur M, Ndokaj A, Jedlinski M, Ardan R, Bietolini S, Ottolenghi L. Impact of green tea (Camellia sinensis) on periodontitis and caries. Systematic review and meta-analysis. Jpn Dent Sci Rev 2021;57:1-11.
  • Mazzanti G, Di Sotto A, Vitalone A. Hepatotoxicity of green tea: an update. Arch Toxicol. 2015;89(8):1175-91.
  • McGowan JD, Altman RE, Kanto WP Jr. Neonatal withdrawal symptoms after chronic maternal ingestion of caffeine. South Med J 1988;81:1092-4.
  • Mei Y, Qian F, Wei D, Liu J. Reversal of cancer multidrug resistance by green tea polyphenols. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2004 Oct;56(10):1307-14.
  • Melgarejo, E., Medina, M. A., Sanchez-Jimenez, F., and Urdiales, J. L. Epigallocatechin gallate reduces human monocyte mobility and adhesion in vitro. Br.J Pharmacol. 2009;158(7):1705-1712.
  • Meltzer, S. M., Monk, B. J., and Tewari, K. S. Green tea catechins for treatment of external genital warts. Am J Obstet.Gynecol. 2009;200(3):233-237.
  • Merhav H, Amitai Y, Palti H, Godfrey S. Tea drinking and microcytic anemia in infants. Am J Clin Nutr 1985;41:1210-3.
  • Mester R, Toren P, Mizrachi I, et al. Caffeine withdrawal increases lithium blood levels. Biol Psychiatry 1995;37:348-50.
  • Mielgo-Ayuso J, Barrenechea L, Alcorta P, Larrarte E, Margareto J, Labayen I. Effects of dietary supplementation with epigallocatechin-3-gallate on weight loss, energy homeostasis, cardiometabolic risk factors and liver function in obese women: randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Br J Nutr. 2014 Apr 14;111(7):1263-71.
  • Migliardi JR, Armellino JJ, Friedman M, et al. Caffeine as an analgesic adjuvant in tension headache. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1994;56:576-86.
  • Miller, R. J., Jackson, K. G., Dadd, T., Mayes, A. E., Brown, A. L., and Minihane, A. M. The impact of the catechol-O-methyltransferase genotype on the acute responsiveness of vascular reactivity to a green tea extract. Br.J.Nutr. 2011;105(8):1138-1144.
  • Miller, R. J., Jackson, K. G., Dadd, T., Mayes, A. E., Brown, A. L., Lovegrove, J. A., and Minihane, A. M. The impact of the catechol-O-methyltransferase genotype on vascular function and blood pressure after acute green tea ingestion. Mol.Nutr.Food Res. 2012;56(6):966-975.
  • Miller, R. J., Jackson, K. G., Dadd, T., Nicol, B., Dick, J. L., Mayes, A. E., Brown, A. L., and Minihane, A. M. A preliminary investigation of the impact of catechol-O-methyltransferase genotype on the absorption and metabolism of green tea catechins. Eur.J.Nutr. 2012;51(1):47-55.
  • Mills BM, Zaya MJ, Walters RR, et al. Current cytochrome P450 phenotyping methods applied to metabolic drug -drug interaction prediction in dogs. Drug Metab Dispos 2010;38:396-404.
  • Mineharu, Y., Koizumi, A., Wada, Y., Iso, H., Watanabe, Y., Date, C., Yamamoto, A., Kikuchi, S., Inaba, Y., Toyoshima, H., Kondo, T., and Tamakoshi, A. Coffee, green tea, black tea and oolong tea consumption and risk of mortality from cardiovascular disease in Japanese men and women. J Epidemiol.Community Health 7-14-2010.
  • Mirtavoos-Mahyari H, Salehipour P, Parohan M, Sadeghi A. Effects of Coffee, Black Tea and Green Tea Consumption on the Risk of Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma: A Systematic Review and Dose-Response Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies. Nutr Cancer. 2019;71(6):887-897.
  • Misaka S, Abe O, Ono T, et al. Effects of single green tea ingestion on pharmacokinetics of nadolol in healthy volunteers. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2020.
  • Misaka S, Ono Y, Taudte RV, et al. Exposure of fexofenadine, but not pseudoephedrine, is markedly decreased by green tea extract in healthy volunteers. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2022;112(3):627-634.
  • Misaka S, Ono Y, Uchida A, et al. Impact of green tea catechin ingestion on the pharmacokinetics of lisinopril in healthy volunteers. Clin Transl Sci. 2020.
  • Misaka S, Yatabe J, Muller F, et al. Green Tea Ingestion Greatly Reduces Plasma Concentrations of Nadolol in Healthy Subjects. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2014.
  • Mitscher LA, Mitscher LA, Jung M, Shankel D, et al. Chemoprotection: a review of the potential therapeutic antioxidant properties of green tea (Camellia sinensis) and certain of its constituents. Med Res Rev 1997;17:327-65.
  • Miyawaki M, Sano H, Imbe H, et al. “Benifuuki” Extract Reduces Serum Levels of Lectin-Like Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-1 Ligands Containing Apolipoprotein B: A Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Randomized Trial. Nutrients 2018;10(7). pii: E924. doi: 10.3390/nu10070924.
  • Mnich, C. D., Hoek, K. S., Virkki, L. V., Farkas, A., Dudli, C., Laine, E., Urosevic, M., and Dummer, R. Green tea extract reduces induction of p53 and apoptosis in UVB-irradiated human skin independent of transcriptional controls. Exp Dermatol. 2009;18(1):69-77.
  • Mohiuddin, M., Azam, A. T., Amran, M. S., and Hossain, M. A. In vive effects of gliclazide and metformin on the plasma concentration of caffeine in healthy rats. Pak.J Biol Sci 5-1-2009;12(9):734-737.
  • Mohseni H, Zaslau S, McFadden D, et al. COX-2 inhibition demonstrates potent anti-proliferative effects on bladder cancer in vitro. J Surg Res 2004;119:138-42.
  • Moisey, L. L., Robinson, L. E., and Graham, T. E. Consumption of caffeinated coffee and a high carbohydrate meal affects postprandial metabolism of a subsequent oral glucose tolerance test in young, healthy males. Br.J Nutr. 2010;103(6):833-841.
  • Molinari, M., Watt, K. D., Kruszyna, T., Nelson, R., Walsh, M., Huang, W. Y., Nashan, B., and Peltekian, K. Acute liver failure induced by green tea extracts: case report and review of the literature. Liver Transpl. 2006;12(12):1892-1895.
  • Mou, N. Z, Ren, G. L., Mou, L. H., and Lu, C. T. Reasearch on the influence of catechin on fatty liver disease (in Chinese). Shandong J Traditional Chin Med 1998;17:55-56.
  • Mozaffari-Khosravi H, Ahadi Z, Barzegar K. The effect of green tea and sour tea on blood pressure of patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized clinical trial. J Diet Suppl. 2013 Jun;10(2):105-15.
  • Mu, D., Yu, J. X., and Li, D. Obervation on the therapeutic effect in the treatment of 26 patients with fatty liver by tea pigment capsules (in Chinese). J Norman Bethune Univ Med Sci 1997;23:528-530.
  • Mu, L. N., Zhou, X. F., Ding, B. G., and Wang, R. H. Study on the protective effect of preen tea on gastric, liver and esophageal cancer (in Chinese). Chin J Prev Med 2003;37:171-173.
  • Mukamal KJ, Maclure M, Muller JE, et al. Tea consumption and mortality after acute myocardial infarction. Circulation 2002;105:2476-81.
  • Mukoyama, A., Ushijima, H., Nishimura, S., Koike, H., Toda, M., Hara, Y., and Shimamura, T. Inhibition of rotavirus and enterovirus infections by tea extracts. Jpn.J Med.Sci Biol. 1991;44(4):181-186.
  • Mulder, T. P., Rietveld, A. G., and Van Amelsvoort, J. M. Consumption of both black tea and green tea results in an increase in the excretion of hippuric acid into urine. Am.J.Clin Nutr. 2005;81(1 Suppl):256S-260S.
  • Muller, N., Ellinger, S., Alteheld, B., Ulrich-Merzenich, G., Berthold, H. K., Vetter, H., and Stehle, P. Bolus ingestion of white and green tea increases the concentration of several flavan-3-ols in plasma, but does not affect markers of oxidative stress in healthy non-smokers. Mol.Nutr.Food Res. 6-10-2010.
  • Myung, S. K., Bae, W. K., Oh, S. M., Kim, Y., Ju, W., Sung, J., Lee, Y. J., Ko, J. A., Song, J. I., and Choi, H. J. Green tea consumption and risk of stomach cancer: a meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies. Int J Cancer 2-1-2009;124(3):670-677.
  • Nagano, J., Kono, S., Preston, D. L., and Mabuchi, K. A prospective study of green tea consumption and cancer incidence, Hiroshima and Nagasaki (Japan). Cancer Causes Control 2001;12(6):501-508.
  • Nagano, J., Kono, S., Preston, D. L., Moriwaki, H., Sharp, G. B., Koyama, K., and Mabuchi, K. Bladder-cancer incidence in relation to vegetable and fruit consumption: a prospective study of atomic-bomb survivors. Int J Cancer 4-1-2000;86(1):132-138.
  • Nagao, T., Hase, T., and Tokimitsu, I. A green tea extract high in catechins reduces body fat and cardiovascular risks in humans. Obesity.(Silver.Spring) 2007;15(6):1473-1483.
  • Nagao, T., Komine, Y., Soga, S., Meguro, S., Hase, T., Tanaka, Y., and Tokimitsu, I. Ingestion of a tea rich in catechins leads to a reduction in body fat and malondialdehyde-modified LDL in men. Am J Clin Nutr 2005;81(1):122-129.
  • Nagao, T., Meguro, S., Hase, T., Otsuka, K., Komikado, M., Tokimitsu, I., Yamamoto, T., and Yamamoto, K. A catechin-rich beverage improves obesity and blood glucose control in patients with type 2 diabetes. Obesity.(Silver.Spring) 2009;17(2):310-317.
  • Nagata, C., Kabuto, M., and Shimizu, H. Association of coffee, green tea, and caffeine intakes with serum concentrations of estradiol and sex hormone-binding globulin in premenopausal Japanese women. Nutr Cancer 1998;30(1):21-24.
  • Najaf Najafi M, Salehi M, Ghazanfarpour M, Hoseini ZS, Khadem-Rezaiyan M. The association between green tea consumption and breast cancer risk: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Phytother Res 2018;32(10):1855-64. doi: 10.1002/ptr.6124.
  • Nakachi, K., Matsuyama, S., Miyake, S., Suganuma, M., and Imai, K. Preventive effects of drinking green tea on cancer and cardiovascular disease: epidemiological evidence for multiple targeting prevention. Biofactors 2000;13(1-4):49-54.
  • Nakachi, K., Suemasu, K., Suga, K., Takeo, T., Imai, K., and Higashi, Y. Influence of drinking green tea on breast cancer malignancy among Japanese patients. Jpn J Cancer Res 1998;89(3):254-261.
  • Nakagawa, K., Okuda, S., and Miyazawa, T. Dose-dependent incorporation of tea catechins, (-)-epigallocatechin-3- gallate and (-)-epigallocatechin, into human plasma. Biosci.Biotechnol.Biochem 1997;61(12):1981-1985.
  • Nakayama, M., Suzuki, K., Toda, M., Okubo, S., Hara, Y., and Shimamura, T. Inhibition of the infectivity of influenza virus by tea polyphenols. Antiviral Res. 1993;21(4):289-299.
  • Nance, C. L., Siwak, E. B., and Shearer, W. T. Preclinical development of the green tea catechin, epigallocatechin gallate, as an HIV-1 therapy. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2009;123(2):459-465.
  • Nanri A, Nakamoto K, Sakamoto N, Imai T, Mizoue T. Green tea consumption and influenza infection among Japanese employees. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2020.
  • Nantz, M. P., Rowe, C. A., Bukowski, J. F., and Percival, S. S. Standardized capsule of Camellia sinensis lowers cardiovascular risk factors in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Nutrition 2009;25(2):147-154.
  • Navarro-Peran E, Cabezas-Herrera J, Garcia-Canovas F, et al. The antifolate activity of tea catechins. Cancer Res 2005;65:2059-64.
  • Nawrot P, Jordan S, Eastwood J, et al. Effects of caffeine on human health. Food Addit Contam 2003;20:1-30.
  • Nehlig A, Debry G. Consequences on the newborn of chronic maternal consumption of coffee during gestation and lactation: a review. J Am Coll Nutr 1994;13:6-21.
  • Nejabat M, Reza SA, Zadmehr M, Yasemi M, Sobhani Z. Efficacy of green tea extract for treatment of dry eye and meibomian gland dysfunction; A double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial study. J Clin Diagn Res. 2017;11(2):NC05-NC08.
  • Nemecz G. Green tea. US Pharm 2000;May:67-70.
  • Netsch, M. I., Gutmann, H., Schmidlin, C. B., Aydogan, C., and Drewe, J. Induction of CYP1A by green tea extract in human intestinal cell lines. Planta Med 2006;72(6):514-520.
  • Ng TP, Gao Q, Gwee X, Chua DQL, Tan WC. Tea Consumption and Risk of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in Middle-Aged and Older Singaporean Adults. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis 2021;16:13-23.
  • Nguyen, M. M., Ahmann, F. R., Nagle, R. B., Hsu, C. H., Tangrea, J. A., Parnes, H. L., Sokoloff, M. H., Gretzer, M. B., and Chow, H. H. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of polyphenon E in prostate cancer patients before prostatectomy: evaluation of potential chemopreventive activities. Cancer Prev.Res.(Phila) 2012;5(2):290-298.
  • Nie J, Yu C, Guo Y, et al. Tea consumption and long-term risk of type 2 diabetes and diabetic complications: a cohort study of 0.5 million Chinese adults. Am J Clin Nutr 2021;114(1):194-202.
  • Nishikawa, M., Ariyoshi, N., Kotani, A., Ishii, I., Nakamura, H., Nakasa, H., Ida, M., Nakamura, H., Kimura, N., Kimura, M., Hasegawa, A., Kusu, F., Ohmori, S., Nakazawa, K., and Kitada, M. Effects of continuous ingestion of green tea or grape seed extracts on the pharmacokinetics of midazolam. Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 2004;19(4):280-289.
  • Niu K, Hozawa A, Kuriyama S, Ebihara S, Guo H, Nakaya N, Ohmori-Matsuda K, Takahashi H, Masamune Y, Asada M, Sasaki S, Arai H, Awata S, Nagatomi R, Tsuji I. Green tea consumption is associated with depressive symptoms in the elderly. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Dec;90(6):1615-22.
  • Nix D, Zelenitsky S, Symonds W, et al. The effect of fluconazole on the pharmacokinetics of caffeine in young and elderly subjects. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1992;51:183.
  • Noguchi-Shinohara M, Yuki S, Dohmoto C, et al. Consumption of green tea, but not black tea or coffee, is associated with reduced risk of cognitive decline. PLoS One. 2014;9(5):e96013.
  • Norager, C. B., Jensen, M. B., Weimann, A., and Madsen, M. R. Metabolic effects of caffeine ingestion and physical work in 75-year old citizens. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2006;65(2):223-228.
  • Nurminen ML, Niittynen L, Korpela R, Vapaatalo H. Coffee, caffeine and blood pressure: a critical review. Eur J Clin Nutr 1999;53:831-9.
  • Nutescu EA, Shapiro NL, Ibrahim S, et al. Warfarin and its interactions with foods, herbs and other dietary supplements. Expert Opin Drug Saf. 2006;5(3):433-51.
  • Ogunleye, A. A., Xue, F., and Michels, K. B. Green tea consumption and breast cancer risk or recurrence: a meta-analysis. Breast Cancer Res.Treat. 2010;119(2):477-484.
  • Ohno Y, Aoki K, Obata K, et al. Case-control study of urinary bladder cancer in metropolitan Nagoya. Natl Cancer Inst Monogr 1985;69:229-34.
  • Okada, N., Tanabe, H., Tazoe, H., Ishigami, Y., Fukutomi, R., Yasui, K., and Isemura, M. Differentiation-associated alteration in sensitivity to apoptosis induced by (-)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate in HL-60 cells. Biomed.Res. 2009;30(4):201-206.
  • Oketch-Rabah HA, Roe AL, Rider CV, et al. United States Pharmacopeia (USP) comprehensive review of the hepatotoxicity of green tea extracts. Toxicol Rep. 2020;7:386-402.
  • Onakpoya I, Spencer E, Heneghan C, Thompson M. The effect of green tea on blood pressure and lipid profile: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2014 Aug;24:823-36.
  • Orozco-Gregorio, H., Mota-Rojas, D., Bonilla-Jaime, H., Trujillo-Ortega, M. E., Becerril-Herrera, M., Hernandez-Gonzalez, R., and Villanueva-Garcia, D. Effects of administration of caffeine on metabolic variables in neonatal pigs with peripartum asphyxia. Am.J Vet.Res. 2010;71(10):1214-1219.
  • Osterburg, A., Gardner, J., Hyon, S. H., Neely, A., and Babcock, G. Highly antibiotic-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolates are killed by the green tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). Clin Microbiol.Infect. 2009;15(4):341-346.
  • Ostrowska, J. and Skrzydlewska, E. The comparison of effect of catechins and green tea extract on oxidative modification of LDL in vitro. Adv Med Sci 2006;51:298-303.
  • Otake, S., Makimura, M., Kuroki, T., Nishihara, Y., and Hirasawa, M. Anticaries effects of polyphenolic compounds from Japanese green tea. Caries Res 1991;25(6):438-443.
  • Otera, H., Tada, K., Sakurai, T., Hashimoto, K., and Ikeda, A. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis associated with inhalation of catechin-rich green tea extracts. Respiration 2011;82(4):388-392.
  • Oyama, J., Maeda, T., Kouzuma, K., Ochiai, R., Tokimitsu, I., Higuchi, Y., Sugano, M., and Makino, N. Green tea catechins improve human forearm endothelial dysfunction and have antiatherosclerotic effects in smokers. Circ.J 2010;74(3):578-588.
  • Oyama, J., Maeda, T., Sasaki, M., Kozuma, K., Ochiai, R., Tokimitsu, I., Taguchi, S., Higuchi, Y., and Makino, N. Green tea catechins improve human forearm vascular function and have potent anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects in smokers. Intern.Med. 2010;49(23):2553-2559.
  • Pan, T., Fei, J., Zhou, X., Jankovic, J., and Le, W. Effects of green tea polyphenols on dopamine uptake and on MPP+ -induced dopamine neuron injury. Life Sci. 1-17-2003;72(9):1073-1083.
  • Pang J, Zhang Z, Zheng TZ, et al. Green tea consumption and risk of cardiovascular and ischemic related diseases: A meta-analysis. Int J Cardiol. 2016;202:967-74.
  • Panza, V. S., Wazlawik, E., Ricardo, Schutz G., Comin, L., Hecht, K. C., and da Silva, E. L. Consumption of green tea favorably affects oxidative stress markers in weight-trained men. Nutrition 2008;24(5):433-442.
  • Papparella, I., Ceolotto, G., Montemurro, D., Antonello, M., Garbisa, S., Rossi, G., and Semplicini, A. Green tea attenuates angiotensin II-induced cardiac hypertrophy in rats by modulating reactive oxygen species production and the Src/epidermal growth factor receptor/Akt signaling pathway. J Nutr. 2008;138(9):1596-1601.
  • Park, C. S., Kim, W., Woo, J. S., Ha, S. J., Kang, W. Y., Hwang, S. H., Park, Y. W., Kim, Y. S., Ahn, Y. K., Jeong, M. H., and Kim, W. Green tea consumption improves endothelial function but not circulating endothelial progenitor cells in patients with chronic renal failure. Int J Cardiol. 12-2-2009.
  • Park, M., Yamada, H., Matsushita, K., Kaji, S., Goto, T., Okada, Y., Kosuge, K., and Kitagawa, T. Green tea consumption is inversely associated with the incidence of influenza infection among schoolchildren in a tea plantation area of Japan. J.Nutr. 2011;141(10):1862-1870.
  • Park, S. K., Jung, I. C., Lee, W. K., Lee, Y. S., Park, H. K., Go, H. J., Kim, K., Lim, N. K., Hong, J. T., Ly, S. Y., and Rho, S. S. A combination of green tea extract and l-theanine improves memory and attention in subjects with mild cognitive impairment: a double-blind placebo-controlled study. J.Med.Food 2011;14(4):334-343.
  • Patel SS, Beer S, Kearney DL, Phillips G, Carter BA. Green tea extract: a potential cause of acute liver failure. World J Gastroenterol. 2013 Aug 21;19(31):5174-7.
  • Pavel, L. and Pave, S. [Usefulness of micronutrients in the treatment of periodontitis]. Ned.Tijdschr.Tandheelkd. 2010;117(2):103-106.
  • Pecorari, M., Villano, D., Testa, M. F., Schmid, M., and Serafini, M. Biomarkers of antioxidant status following ingestion of green teas at different polyphenol concentrations and antioxidant capacity in human volunteers. Mol.Nutr.Food Res. 2010;54 Suppl 2:S278-S283.
  • Peng X, Zhang M, Wang X, et al. Sex differences in the association between green tea consumption and hypertension in elderly Chinese adults. BMC Geriatr 2021;21(1):486.
  • Percevault S, Charpiat B, Lebossé F, Mabrut JY, Vial T, Colom M. Green tea and hepatoxicity: Two case reports. Therapie 2021.
  • Perera, V., Gross, A. S., and McLachlan, A. J. Caffeine and paraxanthine HPLC assay for CYP1A2 phenotype assessment using saliva and plasma. Biomed.Chromatogr. 2010;24(10):1136-1144.
  • Peters U, Poole C, Arab L. Does tea affect cardiovascular disease? A meta-analysis. Am J Epidemiol 2001;154:495-503.
  • Petrie HJ, Chown SE, Belfie LM, et al. Caffeine ingestion increases the insulin response to an oral-glucose-tolerance test in obese men before and after weight loss. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;80:22-8.
  • Pham NM, Nanri A, Kurotani K, Kuwahara K, Kume A, Sato M, Hayabuchi H, Mizoue T. Green tea and coffee consumption is inversely associated with depressive symptoms in a Japanese working population. Public Health Nutr. 2014 Mar;17(3):625-33.
  • Phung OJ, Baker WL, Matthews LJ, et al. Effect of green tea catechins with or without caffeine on anthropometric measures: a systemic review and meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr 2010;91:73-81.
  • Pietta, P., Simonetti, P., Gardana, C., Brusamolino, A., Morazzoni, P., and Bombardelli, E. Relationship between rate and extent of catechin absorption and plasma antioxidant status. Biochem Mol.Biol Int. 1998;46(5):895-903.
  • Pillukat MH, Bester C, Hensel A, Lechtenberg M, Petereit F, Beckebaum S, Müller KM, Schmidt HH. Concentrated green tea extract induces severe acute hepatitis in a 63-year-old woman–a case report with pharmaceutical analysis. J Ethnopharmacol. 2014 Aug 8;155(1):165-70.View abstract.
  • Pisters KM, Newman RA, Coldman B, et al. Phase I trial of oral green tea extract in adult patients with solid tumors. J Clin Oncol 2001;19:1830-8.
  • Pollard HB, Block GE. Rapid dissolution of phytobezoar by cellulase enzyme. Am J Surg. 1968;116:933-936.
  • Pollock BG, Wylie M, Stack JA, et al. Inhibition of caffeine metabolism by estrogen replacement therapy in postmenopausal women. J Clin Pharmacol 1999;39:936-40.
  • Princen HM, van Duyvenvoorde W, Buytenhek R, et al. No effect of consumption of green and black tea on plasma lipid and antioxidant levels and on LDL oxidation in smokers. Arterioscler.Thromb.Vasc.Biol. 1998;18:833-841.
  • Qian F, Wei D, Zhang Q, Yang S. Modulation of P-glycoprotein function and reversal of multidrug resistance by (-)-epigallocatechin gallate in human cancer cells. Biomed Pharmacother. 2005 Apr;59(3):64-9.
  • Qiao J, Gu C, Shang W, et al. Effect of green tea on pharmacokinetics of 5-fluorouracil in rats and pharmacodynamics in human cell lines in vitro. Food Chem Toxicol. 2011;49(6):1410-5.
  • Qin J, Xie B, Mao Q, Kong D, Lin Y, Zheng X. Tea consumption and risk of bladder cancer: a meta-analysis. World J Surg Oncol. 2012 Aug 25;10:172.
  • Raaska K, Raitasuo V, Laitila J, Neuvonen PJ. Effect of caffeine-containing versus decaffeinated coffee on serum clozapine concentrations in hospitalised patients. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 2004;94:13-8.
  • Rakic V, Beilin LJ, Burke V. Effect of coffee and tea drinking on postprandial hypotension in older men and women. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 1996;23:559-63.
  • Ran LS, Liu WH, Fang YY, et al. Alcohol, coffee and tea intake and the risk of cognitive deficits: a dose-response meta-analysis. Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci 2021;30:e13.
  • Rapuri PB, Gallagher JC, Kinyamu HK, Ryschon KL. Caffeine intake increases the rate of bone loss in elderly women and interacts with vitamin D receptor genotypes. Am J Clin Nutr 2001;74:694-700.
  • Rasaei N, Asbaghi O, Samadi M, et al. Effect of green tea supplementation on antioxidant status in adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. Antioxidants (Basel) 2021;10(11):1731.
  • Rasheed, Z., Anbazhagan, A. N., Akhtar, N., Ramamurthy, S., Voss, F. R., and Haqqi, T. M. Green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate inhibits advanced glycation end product-induced expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and matrix metalloproteinase-13 in human chondrocytes. Arthritis Res.Ther. 2009;11(3):R71.
  • Rawangkan A, Kengkla K, Kanchanasurakit S, Duangjai A, Saokaew S. Anti-influenza with green tea catechins: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Molecules 2021;26(13):4014.
  • Reis, J. P., Loria, C. M., Steffen, L. M., Zhou, X., van, Horn L., Siscovick, D. S., Jacobs, D. R., Jr., and Carr, J. J. Coffee, decaffeinated coffee, caffeine, and tea consumption in young adulthood and atherosclerosis later in life: the CARDIA study. Arterioscler.Thromb.Vasc.Biol 2010;30(10):2059-2066.
  • Renouf, M., Guy, P., Marmet, C., Longet, K., Fraering, A. L., Moulin, J., Barron, D., Dionisi, F., Cavin, C., Steiling, H., and Williamson, G. Plasma appearance and correlation between coffee and green tea metabolites in human subjects. Br.J Nutr. 8-9-2010;1-6.
  • Rhodes LE, Darby G, Massey KA, Clarke KA, Dew TP, Farrar MD, Bennett S, Watson RE, Williamson G, Nicolaou A. Oral green tea catechin metabolites are incorporated into human skin and protect against UV radiation-induced cutaneous inflammation in association with reduced production of pro-inflammatory eicosanoid 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid. Br J Nutr. 2013 Sep 14;110(5):891-900.
  • Richards, J. C., Lonac, M. C., Johnson, T. K., Schweder, M. M., and Bell, C. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate Increases Maximal Oxygen Uptake in Adult Humans. Med Sci.Sports Exerc. 11-27-2009.
  • Rigato, I., Blarasin, L., and Kette, F. Severe hypokalemia in 2 young bicycle riders due to massive caffeine intake. Clin J Sport Med. 2010;20(2):128-130.
  • Rizvi, S. I., Jha, R., and Pandey, K. B. Activation of erythrocyte plasma membrane redox system provides a useful method to evaluate antioxidant potential of plant polyphenols. Methods Mol.Biol. 2010;594:341-348.
  • Robinson LE, Savani S, Battram DS, et al. Caffeine ingestion before an oral glucose tolerance test impairs blood glucose management in men with type 2 diabetes. J Nutr 2004;134:2528-33.
  • Rohde, J., Jacobsen, C., and Kromann-Andersen, H. [Toxic hepatitis triggered by green tea]. Ugeskr.Laeger 1-17-2011;173(3):205-206.
  • Rondanelli, M., Opizzi, A., Solerte, S. B., Trotti, R., Klersy, C., and Cazzola, R. Administration of a dietary supplement ( N-oleyl-phosphatidylethanolamine and epigallocatechin-3-gallate formula) enhances compliance with diet in healthy overweight subjects: a randomized controlled trial. Br.J.Nutr. 2009;101(3):457-464.
  • Roomi, M. W., Monterrey, J. C., Kalinovsky, T., Rath, M., and Niedzwiecki, A. Comparative effects of EGCG, green tea and a nutrient mixture on the patterns of MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression in cancer cell lines. Oncol.Rep. 2010;24(3):747-757.
  • Rosenbaum, C. C., O’Mathuna, D. P., Chavez, M., and Shields, K. Antioxidants and antiinflammatory dietary supplements for osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Altern.Ther.Health Med. 2010;16(2):32-40.
  • Ross GW, Abbott RD, Petrovitch H, et al. Association of coffee and caffeine intake with the risk of parkinson disease. JAMA 2000;283:2674-9.
  • Roth M, Timmermann BN, Hagenbuch B. Interactions of green tea catechins with organic anion-transporting polypeptides. Drug Metab Dispos 2011;39:920-6.
  • Rowe, C. A., Nantz, M. P., Bukowski, J. F., and Percival, S. S. Specific formulation of Camellia sinensis prevents cold and flu symptoms and enhances gamma,delta T cell function: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. J Am Coll.Nutr 2007;26(5):445-452.
  • Ruhl, C. E. and Everhart, J. E. Coffee and tea consumption are associated with a lower incidence of chronic liver disease in the United States. Gastroenterology 2005;129(6):1928-1936.
  • Ryu, O. H., Lee, J., Lee, K. W., Kim, H. Y., Seo, J. A., Kim, S. G., Kim, N. H., Baik, S. H., Choi, D. S., and Choi, K. M. Effects of green tea consumption on inflammation, insulin resistance and pulse wave velocity in type 2 diabetes patients. Diabetes Res.Clin Pract. 2006;71(3):356-358.
  • Sadzuka Y, Sugiyama T, Sonobe T. Efficacies of tea components on doxorubicin induced antitumor activity and reversal of multidrug resistance. Toxicol Lett 2000;114:155-62.
  • Sagesaka-Mitane, Y., Miwa, M., and Okada, S. Platelet aggregation inhibitors in hot water extract of green tea. Chem Pharm Bull.(Tokyo) 1990;38(3):790-793.
  • Sakamoto, O., Saita, N., Yamasaki, H., Tamanoi, M., and Ando, M. Pulmonary granulomatosis caused by aspirated green tea. Chest 1994;106(1):308-309.
  • Sakata R, Nakamura T, Torimura T, Ueno T, Sata M. Green tea with high-density catechins improves liver function and fat infiltration in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients: a double-blind placebo-controlled study. Int J Mol Med. 2013 Nov;32(5):989-94.
  • Sakurai K, Shen C, Ezaki Y, et al. Effects of matcha green tea powder on cognitive functions of community-dwelling elderly individuals. Nutrients. 2020;12(12):3639.
  • Samavat H, Newman AR, Wang R, Yuan JM, Wu AH, Kurzer MS. Effects of green tea catechin extract on serum lipids in postmenopausal women: a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2016;104(6):1671-1682.
  • Samman S, Sandstrom B, Toft MB, et al. Green tea or rosemary extract added to foods reduces nonheme-iron absorption. Am J Clin Nutr 2001;73:607-12.
  • Sanderink GJ, Bournique B, Stevens J, et al. Involvement of human CYP1A isoenzymes in the metabolism and drug interactions of riluzole in vitro. Pharmacol Exp Ther 1997;282:1465-72.
  • Sang LX, Chang B, Li XH, Jiang M. Green tea consumption and risk of esophageal cancer: a meta-analysis of published epidemiological studies. Nutr Cancer. 2013;65(6):802-12.
  • Sarma, D. N., Barrett, M. L., Chavez, M. L., Gardiner, P., Ko, R., Mahady, G. B., Marles, R. J., Pellicore, L. S., Giancaspro, G. I., and Low, Dog T. Safety of green tea extracts : a systematic review by the US Pharmacopeia. Drug Saf 2008;31(6):469-484.
  • Sasazuki, S., Kodama, H., Yoshimasu, K., Liu, Y., Washio, M., Tanaka, K., Tokunaga, S., Kono, S., Arai, H., Doi, Y., Kawano, T., Nakagaki, O., Takada, K., Koyanagi, S., Hiyamuta, K., Nii, T., Shirai, K., Ideishi, M., Arakawa, K., Mohri, M., and Takeshita, A. Relation between green tea consumption and the severity of coronary atherosclerosis among Japanese men and women. Ann.Epidemiol. 2000;10(6):401-408.
  • Sato, Y., Nakatsuka, H., Watanabe, T., Hisamichi, S., Shimizu, H., Fujisaku, S., Ichinowatari, Y., Ida, Y., Suda, S., Kato, K., and . Possible contribution of green tea drinking habits to the prevention of stroke. Tohoku J Exp Med 1989;157(4):337-343.
  • Savitz DA, Chan RL, Herring AH, et al. Caffeine and miscarriage risk. Epidemiology 2008;19:55-62.
  • Schabath MB, Hernandez LM, Wu X, et al. Dietary phytoestrogens and lung cancer risk. JAMA 2005;294:1493-1504.
  • Scholey AB, Kennedy DO. Cognitive and physiological effects of an “energy drink:” an evaluation of the whole drink and of glucose, caffeine and herbal flavouring fractions. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2004;176:320-30.
  • Scholey, A., Downey, L. A., Ciorciari, J., Pipingas, A., Nolidin, K., Finn, M., Wines, M., Catchlove, S., Terrens, A., Barlow, E., Gordon, L., and Stough, C. Acute neurocognitive effects of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). Appetite 2012;58(2):767-770.
  • Schönthal AH. Adverse effects of concentrated green tea extracts. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2011 Jun;55(6):874-85.
  • Seely D, Mills EJ, Wu P, et al. The effects of green tea consumption on incidence of breast cancer and recurrence of breast cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Integr Cancer Ther 2005;4:144-55.
  • Seifert, J. G., Nelson, A., Devonish, J., Burke, E. R., and Stohs, S. J. Effect of acute administration of an herbal preparation on blood pressure and heart rate in humans. Int.J.Med.Sci. 2011;8(3):192-197.
  • Serafini, M., Ghiselli, A., and Ferro-Luzzi, A. In vivo antioxidant effect of green and black tea in man. Eur.J Clin Nutr. 1996;50(1):28-32.
  • Setiawan VW, Zhang ZF, Yu GP, et al. Protective effect of green tea on the risks of chronic gastritis and stomach cancer. Int J Cancer 2001;92:600-4.
  • Seufferlein T, Ettrich TJ, Menzler S, et al. Green tea extract to prevent colorectal adenomas, results of a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Am J Gastroenterol 2022;117(6):884-894.
  • Severson, R. K., Nomura, A. M., Grove, J. S., and Stemmermann, G. N. A prospective study of demographics, diet, and prostate cancer among men of Japanese ancestry in Hawaii. Cancer Res. 4-1-1989;49(7):1857-1860.
  • Shamekhi Z, Amani R, Habibagahi Z, Namjoyan F, Ghadiri A, Saki Malehi A. A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Clinical Trial Examining the Effects of Green Tea Extract on Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity and Quality of Life. Phytother Res. 2017;31(7):1063-1071.
  • Shanafelt, T. D., Call, T. G., Zent, C. S., LaPlant, B., Bowen, D. A., Roos, M., Secreto, C. R., Ghosh, A. K., Kabat, B. F., Lee, M. J., Yang, C. S., Jelinek, D. F., Erlichman, C., and Kay, N. E. Phase I trial of daily oral Polyphenon E in patients with asymptomatic Rai stage 0 to II chronic lymphocytic leukemia. J Clin Oncol. 8-10-2009;27(23):3808-3814.
  • Shanafelt, T. D., Call, T. G., Zent, C. S., Leis, J. F., LaPlant, B., Bowen, D. A., Roos, M., Laumann, K., Ghosh, A. K., Lesnick, C., Lee, M. J., Yang, C. S., Jelinek, D. F., Erlichman, C., and Kay, N. E. Phase 2 trial of daily, oral Polyphenon E in patients with asymptomatic, Rai stage 0 to II chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Cancer 1-15-2013;119(2):363-370.
  • Sharifi-Zahabi E, Hajizadeh-Sharafabad F, Abdollahzad H, Dehnad A, Shidfar F. The effect of green tea on prostate specific antigen (PSA): A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Complement Ther Med 2021;57:102659.
  • Shaw JC. Green tea polyphenols may be useful in the treatment of androgen-mediated skin disorders. Arch Dermatol 2001;137:664.
  • Shen Q, Yu C, Guo Y, et al. Habitual Tea Consumption and Risk of Fracture in 0.5 Million Chinese Adults: A Prospective Cohort Study. Nutrients. 2018;10(11). pii: E1633.
  • Shen, C. L., Chyu, M. C., Pence, B. C., Yeh, J. K., Zhang, Y., Felton, C. K., Doctolero, S., and Wang, J. S. Green tea polyphenols supplementation and Tai Chi exercise for postmenopausal osteopenic women: safety and quality of life report. BMC.Complement Altern.Med. 2010;10:76.
  • Shen, C. L., Chyu, M. C., Yeh, J. K., Felton, C. K., Xu, K. T., Pence, B. C., and Wang, J. S. Green tea polyphenols and Tai Chi for bone health: designing a placebo-controlled randomized trial. BMC.Musculoskelet.Disord. 2009;10:110.
  • Shen, C. L., Chyu, M. C., Yeh, J. K., Zhang, Y., Pence, B. C., Felton, C. K., Brismee, J. M., Arjmandi, B. H., Doctolero, S., and Wang, J. S. Effect of green tea and Tai Chi on bone health in postmenopausal osteopenic women: a 6-month randomized placebo-controlled trial. Osteoporos.Int. 2012;23(5):1541-1552.
  • Shen, H. B., Xu, Y. C., Shen, J., and Niu, J. Y. The relationship between habit of drinking green tea and primary liver cancer:a case control study (in Chinese). Clin J Behav Med Sci 1996;5:588-589.
  • Shet, M. S., McPhaul, M., Fisher, C. W., Stallings, N. R., and Estabrook, R. W. Metabolism of the antiandrogenic drug (Flutamide) by human CYP1A2. Drug Metab Dispos. 1997;25(11):1298-1303.
  • Shim, J. S., Kang, M. H., Kim, Y. H., Roh, J. K., Roberts, C., and Lee, I. P. Chemopreventive effect of green tea (Camellia sinensis) among cigarette smokers. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1995;4(4):387-391.
  • Shimizu, M., Fukutomi, Y., Ninomiya, M., Nagura, K., Kato, T., Araki, H., Suganuma, M., Fujiki, H., and Moriwaki, H. Green tea extracts for the prevention of metachronous colorectal adenomas: a pilot study. Cancer Epidemiol.Biomarkers Prev. 2008;17(11):3020-3025.
  • Shin, D. M. Oral cancer prevention advances with a translational trial of green tea. Cancer Prev.Res.(Phila Pa) 2009;2(11):919-921.
  • Shirai T, Hayakawa H, Akiyama J, et al. Food allergy to green tea. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2003;112:805-6.
  • Shiraishi M, Haruna M, Matsuzaki M, Ota E, Murayama R, Murashima S. Association between the serum folate levels and tea consumption during pregnancy. Biosci Trends. 2010 Oct;4(5):225-30.
  • Shrubsole, M. J., Lu, W., Chen, Z., Shu, X. O., Zheng, Y., Dai, Q., Cai, Q., Gu, K., Ruan, Z. X., Gao, Y. T., and Zheng, W. Drinking green tea modestly reduces breast cancer risk. J Nutr. 2009;139(2):310-316.
  • Shu X, Cai H, Xiang YB, et al. Green tea intake and risk of incident kidney stones: Prospective cohort studies in middle-aged and elderly Chinese individuals. Int J Urol. 2019;26(2):241-246.
  • Simmonds, M. J., Minahan, C. L., and Sabapathy, S. Caffeine improves supramaximal cycling but not the rate of anaerobic energy release. Eur.J Appl Physiol 2010;109(2):287-295.
  • Sinclair CJ, Geiger JD. Caffeine use in sports. A pharmacological review. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 2000;40:71-9.
  • Singh, R., Ahmed, S., Islam, N., Goldberg, V. M., and Haqqi, T. M. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate inhibits interleukin-1beta-induced expression of nitric oxide synthase and production of nitric oxide in human chondrocytes: suppression of nuclear factor kappaB activation by degradation of the inhibitor of nuclear factor kappaB. Arthritis Rheum. 2002;46(8):2079-2086.
  • Singh, R., Ahmed, S., Malemud, C. J., Goldberg, V. M., and Haqqi, T. M. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate selectively inhibits interleukin-1beta-induced activation of mitogen activated protein kinase subgroup c-Jun N-terminal kinase in human osteoarthritis chondrocytes. J Orthop.Res. 2003;21(1):102-109.
  • Slivova, V., Zaloga, G., DeMichele, S. J., Mukerji, P., Huang, Y. S., Siddiqui, R., Harvey, K., Valachovicova, T., and Sliva, D. Green tea polyphenols modulate secretion of urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) and inhibit invasive behavior of breast cancer cells. Nutr Cancer 2005;52(1):66-73.
  • Smith A. Effects of caffeine on human behavior. Food Chem Toxicol 2002;40:1243-55.
  • Smits, P., Temme, L., and Thien, T. The cardiovascular interaction between caffeine and nicotine in humans. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1993;54(2):194-204.
  • Snider, J. Green tea may promote periodontal health. J Am.Dent.Assoc. 2009;140(7):838.
  • Sobhani V, Mehrtash M, Shirvani H, Fasihi-Ramandi M. Effects of short-term green tea extract supplementation on VO2 max and inflammatory and antioxidant responses of healthy young men in a hot environment. Int J Prev Med. 2020;11:170.
  • Somani, S. M. and Gupta, P. Caffeine: a new look at an age-old drug. Int.J.Clin.Pharmacol.Ther.Toxicol. 1988;26(11):521-533.
  • Sommer, A. P. and Zhu, D. Green tea and red light–a powerful duo in skin rejuvenation. Photomed.Laser Surg. 2009;27(6):969-971.
  • Son DJ, Cho MR, Jin YR, et al. Antiplatelet effect of green tea catechins: a possible mechanism through arachidonic acid pathway. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2004;71:25-31.
  • Son JT, Lee E. Effects of green tea ingestion on postprandial drops in blood pressure in older adults. J Gerontol Nurs. 2012;38(3):30-8.
  • Sonoda J, Ogata K, Yoshikawa N, Sato K, Ikeda R, Shimodozono Y. Impact of green tea intake on the pharmacokinetics of celiprolol in healthy subjects. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2020.
  • Sonoda T, Nagata Y, Mori M, et al. A case-control study of diet and prostate cancer in Japan: possible protective effect of traditional Japanese diet. Cancer Sci 2004;95:238-42.
  • Sonoda, J., Koriyama, C., Yamamoto, S., Kozako, T., Li, H. C., Lema, C., Yashiki, S., Fujiyoshi, T., Yoshinaga, M., Nagata, Y., Akiba, S., Takezaki, T., Yamada, K., and Sonoda, S. HTLV-1 provirus load in peripheral blood lymphocytes of HTLV-1 carriers is diminished by green tea drinking. Cancer Sci 2004;95(7):596-601.
  • Srichairatanakool S, Ounjaijean S, Thephinlap C, Khansuwan U, Phisalpong C, Fucharoen S. Iron-chelating and free-radical scavenging activities of microwave-processed green tea in iron overload. Hemoglobin. 2006;30(2):311-27.
  • Staib, A. H., Stille, W., Dietlein, G., Shah, P. M., Harder, S., Mieke, S., and Beer, C. Interaction between quinolones and caffeine. Drugs 1987;34 Suppl 1:170-174.
  • Stammler G, Volm M. Green tea catechins (EGCG and EGC) have modulating effects on the activity of doxorubicin in drug-resistant cell lines. Anticancer Drugs 1997;8:265-8.
  • Stanek EJ, Melko GP, Charland SL. Xanthine interference with dipyridamole-thallium-201 myocardial imaging. Pharmacother 1995;29:425-7.
  • Starbuck JM, Llambrich S, Gonzàlez R, et al. Green tea extracts containing epigallocatechin-3-gallate modulate facial development in Down syndrome. Sci Rep 2021;11(1):4715.
  • Stendell-Hollis, N. R., Thomson, C. A., Thompson, P. A., Bea, J. W., Cussler, E. C., and Hakim, I. A. Green tea improves metabolic biomarkers, not weight or body composition: a pilot study in overweight breast cancer survivors. J.Hum.Nutr.Diet. 2010;23(6):590-600.
  • Stille, W., Harder, S., Mieke, S., Beer, C., Shah, P. M., Frech, K., and Staib, A. H. Decrease of caffeine elimination in man during co-administration of 4-quinolones. J.Antimicrob.Chemother. 1987;20(5):729-734.
  • Stingl, J. C., Ettrich, T., Muche, R., Wiedom, M., Brockmoller, J., Seeringer, A., and Seufferlein, T. Protocol for minimizing the risk of metachronous adenomas of the colorectum with green tea extract (MIRACLE): a randomised controlled trial of green tea extract versus placebo for nutriprevention of metachronous colon adenomas in the elderly population. BMC.Cancer 2011;11:360.
  • Stockfleth, E., Beti, H., Orasan, R., Grigorian, F., Mescheder, A., Tawfik, H., and Thielert, C. Topical Polyphenon E in the treatment of external genital and perianal warts: a randomized controlled trial. Br.J Dermatol. 2008;158(6):1329-1338.
  • Stookey JD. The diuretic effects of alcohol and caffeine and total water intake misclassification. Eur J Epidemiol 1999;15:181-8.
  • Subramaniam, P., Eswara, U., and Maheshwar Reddy, K. R. Effect of different types of tea on Streptococcus mutans: an in vitro study. Indian J.Dent.Res. 2012;23(1):43-48.
  • Sun J. Morning/evening menopausal formula relieves menopausal symptoms: a pilot study. J Altern Complement Med 2003;9:403-9.
  • Sun, C. L., Yuan, J. M., Koh, W. P., and Yu, M. C. Green tea, black tea and colorectal cancer risk: a meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies. Carcinogenesis 2006;27(7):1301-1309.
  • Sung, H., Min, W. K., Lee, W., Chun, S., Park, H., Lee, Y. W., Jang, S., and Lee, D. H. The effects of green tea ingestion over four weeks on atherosclerotic markers. Ann.Clin Biochem 2005;42(Pt 4):292-297.
  • Suyama, E., Tamura, T., Ozawa, T., Suzuki, A., Iijima, Y., and Saito, T. Remineralization and acid resistance of enamel lesions after chewing gum containing fluoride extracted from green tea. Aust.Dent.J. 2011;56(4):394-400.
  • Suzuki S, Murayama Y, Sugiyama E, et al. Estimating pediatric doses of drugs metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP) isozymes, based on physiological liver development and serum protein levels. Yakugaku Zasshi 2010;130:613-20.
  • Suzuki Y, Tsubono Y, Nakaya N, et al. Green tea and the risk of breast cancer: pooled analysis of two prospective studies in Japan. Br J Cancer 2004;90:1361-3.
  • Syed TA, Ahmad SA. Wong W. et al. Clinical evaluation of 2 polyphenone (green tea extract) in a hydrophilic gel to assess improvement in aged and damaged facial skin: a placebo-controlled, double-blind study [abstract]. 20th Worid Congress of Dermatology; 2002;1.
  • Tajima K, Tominaga S. Dietary habits and gastro-intestinal cancers: a comparative case-control study of stomach and large intestinal cancers in Nagoya, Japan. Jpn J Cancer Res 1985;76:705-16.
  • Takada M, Yamagishi K, Iso H, Tamakoshi A. Green tea consumption and risk of hematologic neoplasms: the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study for Evaluation of Cancer Risk (JACC Study). Cancer Causes Control. 2019;30(11):1223-1230.
  • Takahashi M, Ozaki M, Miyashita M, et al. Effects of timing of acute catechin-rich green tea ingestion on postprandial glucose metabolism in healthy men. J Nutr Biochem. 2019;73:108221.
  • Takeshita M, Takashima S Harada U Shibata E Hosoya N Takase H et al. Effects of long-term consumption of tea catechins-enriched beverage with no caffeine on body composition in humans. Japanese Pharmacology and Therapeutics 2008;36(8):767-776.
  • Tang, N. P., Li, H., Qiu, Y. L., Zhou, G. M., and Ma, J. Tea consumption and risk of endometrial cancer: a metaanalysis. Am.J Obstet.Gynecol. 2009;201(6):605-608.
  • Tang, N., Wu, Y., Zhou, B., Wang, B., and Yu, R. Green tea, black tea consumption and risk of lung cancer: a meta-analysis. Lung Cancer 2009;65(3):274-283.
  • Tao M, Liu D Gao L Jin F. Association between green tea drinking and breast cancer risk. Tumor 2002;22(3):11-15.
  • Tatti, S., Stockfleth, E., Beutner, K. R., Tawfik, H., Elsasser, U., Weyrauch, P., and Mescheder, A. Polyphenon E: a new treatment for external anogenital warts. Br.J Dermatol. 2010;162(1):176-184.
  • Tatti, S., Swinehart, J. M., Thielert, C., Tawfik, H., Mescheder, A., and Beutner, K. R. Sinecatechins, a defined green tea extract, in the treatment of external anogenital warts: a randomized controlled trial. Obstet.Gynecol. 2008;111(6):1371-1379.
  • Taubert D, Roesen R, Schomig E. Effect of cocoa and tea intake on blood pressure: a meta-analysis. Arch Intern Med 2007;167:626-34.
  • Taylor JR, Wilt VM. Probable antagonism of warfarin by green tea. Ann Pharmacother 1999;33:426-8.
  • Temme EH, Van Hoydonck PG. Tea consumption and iron status. Eur J Clin Nutr 2002;56:379-86.
  • Teramoto M, Muraki I, Yamagishi K, Tamakoshi A, Iso H. Green tea and coffee consumption and all-cause mortality among persons with and without stroke or myocardial infarction. Stroke 2021;52(3):957-965.
  • Teramoto M, Yamagishi K, Muraki I, Tamakoshi A, Iso H. Coffee and green tea consumption and cardiovascular disease mortality among people with and without hypertension. J Am Heart Assoc 2023;12(2):e026477.
  • The National Toxicology Program (NTP). Caffeine. Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction (CERHR). Available at: http://cerhr.niehs.nih.gov/common/caffeine.html.
  • Tjeerdsma, F., Jonkman, M. F., and Spoo, J. R. Temporary arrest of basal cell carcinoma formation in a patient with basal cell naevus syndrome (BCNS) since treatment with a gel containing various plant extracts. J.Eur.Acad.Dermatol.Venereol. 2011;25(2):244-245.
  • Tomankova, K., Kolarova, H., Bajgar, R., Jirova, D., Kejlova, K., and Mosinger, J. Study of the photodynamic effect on the A549 cell line by atomic force microscopy and the influence of green tea extract on the production of reactive oxygen species. Ann.N.Y.Acad.Sci. 2009;1171:549-558.
  • Toolsee NA, Aruoma OI, Gunness TK, Kowlessur S, Dambala V, Murad F, Googoolye K, Daus D, Indelicato J, Rondeau P, Bourdon E, Bahorun T. Effectiveness of green tea in a randomized human cohort: relevance to diabetes and its complications. Biomed Res Int. 2013;2013:412379.
  • Trudel D, Labbé DP, Araya-Farias M, Doyen A, Bazinet L, Duchesne T, Plante M, Grégoire J, Renaud MC, Bachvarov D, Têtu B, Bairati I. A two-stage, single-arm, phase II study of EGCG-enriched green tea drink as a maintenance therapy in women with advanced stage ovarian cancer. Gynecol Oncol. 2013 Nov;131(2):357-61.
  • Tsao, A. S., Liu, D., Martin, J., Tang, X. M., Lee, J. J., El-Naggar, A. K., Wistuba, I., Culotta, K. S., Mao, L., Gillenwater, A., Sagesaka, Y. M., Hong, W. K., and Papadimitrakopoulou, V. Phase II randomized, placebo-controlled trial of green tea extract in patients with high-risk oral premalignant lesions. Cancer Prev.Res.(Phila Pa) 2009;2(11):931-941.
  • Tsubono Y and Tsugane S. Green tea intake in relation to serum lipid levels in middle-aged japanese men and women. Ann Epidemiol 1997;7(4):280-284.
  • Tsubono Y, Nishino Y, Komatsu S, et al. Green tea and the risk of gastric cancer in Japan. N Engl J Med 2001;344:632-6.
  • Turpault S, Brian W, Van Horn R, et al. Pharmacokinetic assessment of a five-probe cocktail for CYPs 1A2, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, and 3A. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2009;68:928-35.
  • Tzellos, T. G., Sardeli, C., Lallas, A., Papazisis, G., Chourdakis, M., and Kouvelas, D. Efficacy, safety and tolerability of green tea catechins in the treatment of external anogenital warts: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J.Eur.Acad.Dermatol.Venereol. 2011;25(3):345-353.
  • Ullmann, U., Haller, J., Decourt, J. D., Girault, J., Spitzer, V., and Weber, P. Plasma-kinetic characteristics of purified and isolated green tea catechin epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) after 10 days repeated dosing in healthy volunteers. Int J Vitam.Nutr.Res. 2004;74(4):269-278.
  • Underwood DA. Which medications should be held before a pharmacologic or exercise stress test? Cleve Clin J Med 2002;69:449-50.
  • Unno, T., Kondo, K., Itakura, H., and Takeo, T. Analysis of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate in human serum obtained after ingesting green tea. Biosci.Biotechnol.Biochem 1996;60(12):2066-2068.
  • Unno, T., Tago, M., Suzuki, Y., Nozawa, A., Sagesaka, Y. M., Kakuda, T., Egawa, K., and Kondo, K. Effect of tea catechins on postprandial plasma lipid responses in human subjects. Br.J Nutr. 2005;93(4):543-547.
  • Ursing, C., Wikner, J., Brismar, K., and Rojdmark, S. Caffeine raises the serum melatonin level in healthy subjects: an indication of melatonin metabolism by cytochrome P450(CYP)1A2. J.Endocrinol.Invest 2003;26(5):403-406.
  • Vahedi K, Domingo V, Amarenco P, Bousser MG. Ischemic stroke in a sportsman who consumed MaHuang extract and creatine monohydrate for bodybuilding. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatr 2000;68:112-3.
  • van der Hoeven N, Visser I, Schene A, van den Born BJ. Severe hypertension related to caffeinated coffee and tranylcypromine: a case report. Ann Intern Med. 2014 May 6;160(9):657-8. doi: 10.7326/L14-5009-8.
  • Van Dorsten, F. A., Daykin, C. A., Mulder, T. P., and Van Duynhoven, J. P. Metabonomics approach to determine metabolic differences between green tea and black tea consumption. J Agric Food Chem 9-6-2006;54(18):6929-6938.
  • Van Het Hof, K. H., de Boer, H. S., Wiseman, S. A., Lien, N., Westrate, J. A., and Tijburg, L. B. Consumption of green or black tea does not increase resistance of low-density lipoprotein to oxidation in humans. Am.J Clin.Nutr. 1997;66(5):1125-1132.
  • Van Het Hof, K. H., Kivits, G. A., Weststrate, J. A., and Tijburg, L. B. Bioavailability of catechins from tea: the effect of milk. Eur.J Clin.Nutr. 1998;52(5):356-359.
  • Van Het Hof, K. H., Wiseman, S. A., Yang, C. S., and Tijburg, L. B. Plasma and lipoprotein levels of tea catechins following repeated tea consumption. Proc.Soc.Exp.Biol.Med 1999;220(4):203-209.
  • Vandeberghe K, Gillis N, Van Leemputte M, et al. Caffeine counteracts the ergogenic action of muscle creatine loading. J Appl Physiol 1996;80:452-7.
  • Vaz, J., Kulkarni, C., David, J., and Joseph, T. Influence of caffeine on pharmacokinetic profile of sodium valproate and carbamazepine in normal human volunteers. Indian J.Exp.Biol. 1998;36(1):112-114.
  • Veerman GDM, van der Werff SC, Koolen SLW, et al. The influence of green tea extract on nintedanib’s bioavailability in patients with pulmonary fibrosis. Biomed Pharmacother 2022;151:113101.
  • Venables, M. C., Hulston, C. J., Cox, H. R., and Jeukendrup, A. E. Green tea extract ingestion, fat oxidation, and glucose tolerance in healthy humans. Am.J Clin Nutr. 2008;87(3):778-784.
  • Vilela MM, Salvador SL, Teixeira IGL, Del Arco MCG, De Rossi A. Efficacy of green tea and its extract, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, in the reduction of cariogenic microbiota in children: a randomized clinical trial. Arch Oral Biol. 2020;114:104727.
  • Vinson JA, Teufel K, Wu N. Green and black teas inhibit atherosclerosis by lipid, antioxidant, and fibrinolytic mechanisms. J Agric Food Chem 2004;52:3661-5.
  • Voskoboinik A, Kalman JM, Kistler PM. Caffeine and arrhythmias: time to grind the data. JACC: Clin Electrophysiol. 2018;4(4):425-32.
  • Vu, H. A., Beppu, Y., Chi, H. T., Sasaki, K., Yamamoto, H., Xinh, P. T., Tanii, T., Hara, Y., Watanabe, T., Sato, Y., and Ohdomari, I. Green tea epigallocatechin gallate exhibits anticancer effect in human pancreatic carcinoma cells via the inhibition of both focal adhesion kinase and insulin-like growth factor-I receptor. J.Biomed.Biotechnol. 2010;2010:290516.
  • Wahllander A, Paumgartner G. Effect of ketoconazole and terbinafine on the pharmacokinetics of caffeine in healthy volunteers. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1989;37:279-83.
  • Wakabayashi K, Kono S, Shinchi K, et al. Habitual coffee consumption and blood pressure: A study of self-defense officials in Japan. Eur J Epidemiol 1998;14:669-73.
  • Wakai K, Ohno Y, Obata K. Prognostic significance of selected lifestyle factors in urinary bladder cancer. Jpn J Cancer Res 1993;84:1223-9.
  • Wakai, K., Hirose, K., Takezaki, T., Hamajima, N., Ogura, Y., Nakamura, S., Hayashi, N., and Tajima, K. Foods and beverages in relation to urothelial cancer: case-control study in Japan. Int J Urol. 2004;11(1):11-19.
  • Wallach J. Interpretation of Diagnostic Tests. A synopsis of Laboratory Medicine. Fifth ed; Boston, MA: Little Brown, 1992.
  • Wang S, Li X, Yang Y, et al. Does coffee, tea and caffeine consumption reduce the risk of incident breast cancer? A systematic review and network meta-analysis. Public Health Nutr 2021;24(18):6377-6389.
  • Wang W, Yang Y, Zhang W, Wu W. Association of tea consumption and the risk of oral cancer: a meta-analysis. Oral Oncol. 2014 Apr;50(4):276-81.
  • Wang X, Lin YW, Wang S, Wu J, Mao QQ, Zheng XY, Xie LP. A meta-analysis of tea consumption and the risk of bladder cancer. Urol Int. 2013;90(1):10-6.
  • Wang XJ, Zeng XT, Duan XL, Zeng HC, Shen R, Zhou P. Association between green tea and colorectal cancer risk: a meta-analysis of 13 case-control studies. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2012;13(7):3123-7.
  • Wang Y, Yu X, Wu Y, Zhang D. Coffee and tea consumption and risk of lung cancer: a dose-response analysis of observational studies. Lung Cancer. 2012;78(2):169-70.
  • Wang YC, Huang TL. Anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of Plumbago zeylanica L. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2005 Mar 1;43(3):407-12.
  • Wang ZH, Gao QY, Fang JY. Green tea and incidence of colorectal cancer: evidence from prospective cohort studies. Nutr Cancer. 2012;64(8):1143-52.
  • Wang ZM, Zhao D, Wang H, Wang QM, Zhou B, Wang LS. Green tea consumption and the risk of coronary heart disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2023;33(4):715-723.
  • Wang, H., Wen, Y., Du, Y., Yan, X., Guo, H., Rycroft, J. A., Boon, N., Kovacs, E. M., and Mela, D. J. Effects of catechin enriched green tea on body composition. Obesity.(Silver.Spring) 2010;18(4):773-779.
  • Wang, L. D., Zhou, Q., Feng, C. W., Liu, B., Qi, Y. J., Zhang, Y. R., Gao, S. S., Fan, Z. M., Zhou, Y., Yang, C. S., Wei, J. P., and Zheng, S. Intervention and follow-up on human esophageal precancerous lesions in Henan, northern China, a high-incidence area for esophageal cancer. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho 2002;29 Suppl 1:159-172.
  • Wang, L., Xu, S., Xu, X., and Chan, P. (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate protects SH-SY5Y cells against 6-OHDA-induced cell death through STAT3 activation. J.Alzheimers.Dis. 2009;17(2):295-304.
  • Wang, P., Aronson, W. J., Huang, M., Zhang, Y., Lee, R. P., Heber, D., and Henning, S. M. Green tea polyphenols and metabolites in prostatectomy tissue: implications for cancer prevention. Cancer Prev.Res.(Phila Pa) 2010;3(8):985-993.
  • Wang, Q. M., Gong, Q. Y., Yan, J. J., Zhu, J., Tang, J. J., Wang, M. W., Yang, Z. J., and Wang, L. S. Association between green tea intake and coronary artery disease in a Chinese population. Circ.J 2010;74(2):294-300.
  • Wang, X. and Yeung, J. H. Effects of the aqueous extract from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge on caffeine pharmacokinetics and liver microsomal CYP1A2 activity in humans and rats. J Pharm Pharmacol 2010;62(8):1077-1083.
  • Wang, Z. M., Zhou, B., Wang, Y. S., Gong, Q. Y., Wang, Q. M., Yan, J. J., Gao, W., and Wang, L. S. Black and green tea consumption and the risk of coronary artery disease: a meta-analysis. Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 2011;93(3):506-515.
  • Watanabe, I., Kuriyama, S., Kakizaki, M., Sone, T., Ohmori-Matsuda, K., Nakaya, N., Hozawa, A., and Tsuji, I. Green tea and death from pneumonia in Japan: the Ohsaki cohort study. Am.J Clin Nutr. 2009;90(3):672-679.
  • Watson JM, Jenkins EJ, Hamilton P, et al. Influence of caffeine on the frequency and perception of hypoglycemia in free-living patients with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2000;23:455-9.
  • Watson JM, Sherwin RS, Deary IJ, et al. Dissociation of augmented physiological, hormonal and cognitive responses to hypoglycaemia with sustained caffeine use. Clin Sci (Lond) 2003;104:447-54.
  • Weisburger JH. Tea and health: the underlying mechanisms. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1999;220:271-5.
  • Wemple RD, Lamb DR, McKeever KH. Caffeine vs caffeine-free sports drinks: effects on urine production at rest and during prolonged exercise. Int J Sports Med 1997;18:40-6.
  • Wen, W., Xiang, Y. B., Zheng, W., Xu, W. H., Yang, G., Li, H., and Shu, X. O. The association of alcohol, tea, and other modifiable lifestyle factors with myocardial infarction and stroke in Chinese men. CVD.Prev Control 2008;3(3):133-140.
  • Weng X, Odouli R, Li DK. Maternal caffeine consumption during pregnancy and the risk of miscarriage: a prospective cohort study. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2008;198:279.e1-8.
  • Westphal, L. M., Polan, M. L., and Trant, A. S. Double-blind, placebo-controlled study of Fertilityblend: a nutritional supplement for improving fertility in women. Clin Exp.Obstet.Gynecol. 2006;33(4):205-208.
  • Wightman, E. L., Haskell, C. F., Forster, J. S., Veasey, R. C., and Kennedy, D. O. Epigallocatechin gallate, cerebral blood flow parameters, cognitive performance and mood in healthy humans: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover investigation. Hum.Psychopharmacol. 2012;27(2):177-186.
  • Wikoff D, Welsh BT, Henderson R, et al. Systematic review of the potential adverse effects of caffeine consumption in healthy adults, pregnant women, adolescents, and children. Food Chem Toxicol 2017;109:585-648.
  • Wilkens, L. R., Kadir, M. M., Kolonel, L. N., Nomura, A. M., and Hankin, J. H. Risk factors for lower urinary tract cancer: the role of total fluid consumption, nitrites and nitrosamines, and selected foods. Cancer Epidemiol.Biomarkers Prev. 1996;5(3):161-166.
  • Williams MH, Branch JD. Creatine supplementation and exercise performance: an update. J Am Coll Nutr 1998;17:216-34.
  • Williamson, G., Coppens, P., Serra-Majem, L., and Dew, T. Review of the efficacy of green tea, isoflavones and aloe vera supplements based on randomised controlled trials. Food Funct. 2011;2(12):753-759.
  • Winkelmayer WC, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC, Curhan GC. Habitual caffeine intake and the risk of hypertension in women. JAMA 2005;294:2330-5.
  • Wojcikowski, J. and Daniel, W. A. Perazine at therapeutic drug concentrations inhibits human cytochrome P450 isoenzyme 1A2 (CYP1A2) and caffeine metabolism–an in vitro study. Pharmacol Rep. 2009;61(5):851-858.
  • Wu AH, Tseng CC, Van Den Berg D, Yu MC. Tea intake, COMT genotype, and breast cancer in Asian-American women. Cancer Res 2003;63:7526-9.
  • Wu AH, Yu MC, Tseng CC, et al. Green tea and risk of breast cancer in Asian Americans. Int J Cancer 2003;106:574-9.
  • Wu CH, Yang YC, Yao WJ, et al. Epidemiological evidence of increased bone mineral density in habitual tea drinkers. Arch Intern Med 2002;162:1001-6.
  • Wu, A. H., Spicer, D., Stanczyk, F. Z., Tseng, C. C., Yang, C. S., and Pike, M. C. Effect of 2-month controlled green tea intervention on lipoprotein cholesterol, glucose, and hormone levels in healthy postmenopausal women. Cancer Prev.Res.(Phila) 2012;5(3):393-402.
  • Wu, H., Zhu, B., Shimoishi, Y., Murata, Y., and Nakamura, Y. (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate induces up-regulation of Th1 and Th2 cytokine genes in Jurkat T cells. Arch.Biochem.Biophys. 3-1-2009;483(1):99-105.
  • Wu, M., Liu, A. M., Kampman, E., Zhang, Z. F., Van’t Veer, P., Wu, D. L., Wang, P. H., Yang, J., Qin, Y., Mu, L. N., Kok, F. J., and Zhao, J. K. Green tea drinking, high tea temperature and esophageal cancer in high- and low-risk areas of Jiangsu Province, China: a population-based case-control study. Int J Cancer 4-15-2009;124(8):1907-1913.
  • Wu, S., Li, F., Huang, X., Hua, Q., Huang, T., Liu, Z., Liu, Z., Zhang, Z., Liao, C., Chen, Y., Shi, Y., Zeng, R., Feng, M., Zhong, X., Long, Z., Tan, W., and Zhang, X. The association of tea consumption with bladder cancer risk: a meta-analysis. Asia Pac.J.Clin.Nutr. 2013;22(1):128-137.
  • Wu, Y. J., Liang, C. H., Zhou, F. J., Gao, X., Chen, L. W., and Liu, Q. [A case-control study of environmental and genetic factors and prostate cancer in Guangdong]. Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi.Xue.Za Zhi. 2009;43(7):581-585.
  • Xiao, J. P., Shen, X. N., Wu, M., and Lu, R. F. Epidemiologic survey on the association between green tea intake and fatty liver disease (in Chinese). China Public Health 2002;18:385-387.
  • Xie L, Tang Q, Yao D, et al. Effect of decaffeinated green tea polyphenols on body fat and precocious puberty in obese girls: A randomized controlled trial. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021;12:736724.
  • Xu R, Yang K, Ding J, Chen G. Effect of green tea supplementation on blood pressure: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Medicine (Baltimore). 2020;99(6):e19047.
  • Xu, H., Becker, C. M., Lui, W. T., Chu, C. Y., Davis, T. N., Kung, A. L., Birsner, A. E., D’Amato, R. J., Wai Man, G. C., and Wang, C. C. Green tea epigallocatechin-3-gallate inhibits angiogenesis and suppresses vascular endothelial growth factor C/vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 expression and signaling in experimental endometriosis in vivo. Fertil.Steril. 2011;96(4):1021-1028.
  • Xu, Y. C., Shen, H. B., Niu, J. Y., and Shen, J. An intervention trial with green tea on high risk population of primary liver cancer (in Chinese). Cancer Res Prev Treatment 1998;25:223-225.
  • Yaegashi A, Kimura T, Hirata T, Tamakoshi A. Green tea consumption and risk of depression symptoms: A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 2022;68(3):155-161.
  • Yanagida A, Shoji A, Shibusawa Y, et al. Analytical separation of tea catechins and food-related polyphenols by high-speed counter-current chromatography. J Chromatogr A 2006;1112:195-201.
  • Yang YC, Lu FH, Wu JS, et al. The protective effect of habitual tea consumption on hypertension. Arch Intern Med 2004 26;164:1534-40.
  • Yang, C. S., Chen, L., Lee, M. J., Balentine, D., Kuo, M. C., and Schantz, S. P. Blood and urine levels of tea catechins after ingestion of different amounts of green tea by human volunteers. Cancer Epidemiol.Biomarkers Prev. 1998;7(4):351-354.
  • Yang, C. S., Lambert, J. D., and Sang, S. Antioxidative and anti-carcinogenic activities of tea polyphenols. Arch.Toxicol. 2009;83(1):11-21.
  • Yang, H. Y., Yang, S. C., Chao, J. C., and Chen, J. R. Beneficial effects of catechin-rich green tea and inulin on the body composition of overweight adults. Br.J.Nutr. 2012;107(5):749-754.
  • Yang, T. T. and Koo, M. W. Hypocholesterolemic effects of Chinese tea. Pharmacol Res 1997;35(6):505-512.
  • Yates AA, Erdman JW Jr, Shao A, Dolan LC, Griffiths JC. Bioactive nutrients – Time for tolerable upper intake levels to address safety. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2017;84:94-101.
  • Yellapu, R. K., Mittal, V., Grewal, P., Fiel, M., and Schiano, T. Acute liver failure caused by ‘fat burners’ and dietary supplements: a case report and literature review. Can.J.Gastroenterol. 2011;25(3):157-160.
  • Yi Y, Liang H, Jing H, et al. Green Tea Consumption and Esophageal Cancer Risk: A Meta-analysis. Nutr Cancer. 2019 Jul 5:1-9.
  • Yian LG. Case study on the effectiveness of green tea bags as a secondary dressing to control malodour of fungating breast cancer wounds. Singapore Nurs J 2005;32:42-48.
  • Yildirim Ayaz E, Dincer B, Mesci B. Effect of green tea on blood pressure in healthy individuals: A meta-analysis. Altern Ther Health Med 2023;29(5):66-73.
  • Yoon, J. Y., Kwon, H. H., Min, S. U., Thiboutot, D. M., and Suh, D. H. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate improves acne in humans by modulating intracellular molecular targets and inhibiting P. acnes. J.Invest Dermatol. 2013;133(2):429-440.
  • Yoto, A., Motoki, M., Murao, S., and Yokogoshi, H. Effects of L-theanine or caffeine intake on changes in blood pressure under physical and psychological stresses. J.Physiol Anthropol. 2012;31:28.
  • Younes M, Aggett P, Aguilar F, et al. EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS). Scientific opinion on the safety of green tea catechins. EFSA Journal 2018;16(4):5239.
  • Yu F, Jin Z, Jiang H, Xiang C, Tang J, Li T, He J. Tea consumption and the risk of five major cancers: a dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies. BMC Cancer. 2014 Mar 17;14:197.
  • Yu GP, Hsieh CC. Risk factors for stomach cancer: a population-based case-control study in Shanghai. Cancer Causes Control 1991;2:169-74.
  • Yu J, Liang D, Li J, et al. Coffee, green tea intake, and the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma: A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Nutr Cancer 2023;75(5):1295-1308.
  • Yu, G. P., Hsieh, C. C., Wang, L. Y., Yu, S. Z., Li, X. L., and Jin, T. H. Green-tea consumption and risk of stomach cancer: a population-based case-control study in Shanghai, China. Cancer Causes Control 1995;6(6):532-538.
  • Yuan JM, Koh WP, Sun CL, et al. Green tea intake, ACE gene polymorphism and breast cancer risk among Chinese women in Singapore. Carcinogenesis 2005;26:1389-94.
  • Yuan, Y. B., Wang, Z. Q., Hu, X. X., and Jiang, Q. W. Cohort study of drinking green tea on liver disease (in Chinese). Pract Prev Med 2005;12:1016-1018.
  • Zelicha H, Kloting N, Kaplan A, et al. The effect of high-polyphenol Mediterranean diet on visceral adiposity: the DIRECT PLUS randomized controlled trial. BMC Med 2022;20(1):327.
  • Zhang M, Binns CW, Lee AH. Tea consumption and ovarian cancer risk: a case-control study in China. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2002;11:713-8.
  • Zhang M, Zhao X, Zhang X, Holman CD. Possible protective effect of green tea intake on risk of adult leukaemia. Br J Cancer. 2008 Jan 15;98(1):168-70.
  • Zhang Q, Wei D, Liu J. In vivo reversal of doxorubicin resistance by (-)-epigallocatechin gallate in a solid human carcinoma xenograft. Cancer Lett. 2004 May 28;208(2):179-86.
  • Zhang T, Li N, Chen SI, Hou Z, Saito A. Effects of green tea extract combined with brisk walking on lipid profiles and the liver function in overweight and obese men: A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-control trial. An Acad Bras Cienc. 2020;92(4):e20191594.
  • Zhang X, Zhang R, Chen D, et al. Association of tea drinking and dysmenorrhoea among reproductive-age women in Shanghai, China (2013-2015): a cross-sectional study. BMJ Open. 2019;9(4):e026643.
  • Zhang Y, Yang H, Li S, Li WD, Wang Y. Consumption of coffee and tea and risk of developing stroke, dementia, and poststroke dementia: A cohort study in the UK Biobank. PLoS Med 2021;18(11):e1003830.
  • Zhang, M., Holman, C. D., Huang, J. P., and Xie, X. Green tea and the prevention of breast cancer: a case-control study in Southeast China. Carcinogenesis 2007;28(5):1074-1078.
  • Zhang, M., Huang, J., Xie, X., and Holman, C. D. Dietary intakes of mushrooms and green tea combine to reduce the risk of breast cancer in Chinese women. Int J Cancer 3-15-2009;124(6):1404-1408.
  • Zhang, W., Lopez-Garcia, E., Li, T. Y., Hu, F. B., and van Dam, R. M. Coffee consumption and risk of cardiovascular diseases and all-cause mortality among men with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2009;32(6):1043-1045.
  • Zhang, Y. et al., Effects of catechin-enriched green tea beverage on visceral fat loss in adults with a high pro-portion of visceral fat: A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial, Journal of Functional Foods (2012), doi:10.1016/j.jff.2011.12.010.
  • Zhang, Z. M., Yang, X. Y., Yuan, J. H., Sun, Z. Y., and Li, Y. Q. Modulation of NRF2 and UGT1A expression by epigallocatechin-3-gallate in colon cancer cells and BALB/c mice. Chin Med J (Engl.) 7-20-2009;122(14):1660-1665.
  • Zhang, Z. Q., Lui, Q. F., Huang, Y. R., and Wu, Y. D. An epidemiological trial of using green tea to prevent liver cancer (in Chinese). GuangXi Prev Med 1995;1:5-7.
  • Zhao H, Mei K, Yang L, Liu X, Xie L. Green tea consumption and risk for esophageal cancer: A systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis. Nutrition 2021;87-88:111197.
  • Zhao H, Zhu W, Zhao X, et al. Efficacy of epigallocatechin-3-gallate in preventing dermatitis in patients with breast cancer receiving postoperative radiotherapy: A double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2 randomized clinical trial. JAMA Dermatol 2022;158(7):779-786.
  • Zheng G, Sayama K, Okubo T, et al. Anti-obesity effects of three major components of green tea, catechins, caffeine and theanine, in mice. In Vivo 2004;18:55-62.
  • Zheng JS, Yang J, Fu YQ, Huang T, Huang YJ, Li D. Effects of green tea, black tea, and coffee consumption on the risk of esophageal cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Nutr Cancer. 2013;65(1):1-16.
  • Zheng KH, Zhu K, Wactawski-Wende J, et al. Caffeine intake from coffee and tea and invasive breast cancer incidence among postmenopausal women in the Women’s Health Initiative. Int J Cancer 2021;149(12):2032-2044.
  • Zheng P, Zheng HM, Deng XM, Zhang YD. Green tea consumption and risk of esophageal cancer: a meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies. BMC Gastroenterol. 2012 Nov 21;12:165.
  • Zheng XM, Williams RC. Serum caffeine levels after 24-hour abstention: clinical implications on dipyridamole (201)Tl myocardial perfusion imaging. J Nucl Med Technol 2002;30:123-7.
  • Zheng XX, Xu YL, Li SH, et al. Green tea intake lowers fasting serum total and LDL cholesterol in adults: a meta-analysis of 14 randomized controlled trials. Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 2011;94:601-610.
  • Zheng XX, Xu YL, Li SH, Hui R, Wu YJ, Huang XH. Effects of green tea catechins with or without caffeine on glycemic control in adults: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 Apr;97(4):750-62.
  • Zheng, J., Chen, B., Jiang, B., Zeng, L., Tang, Z. R., Fan, L., and Zhou, H. H. The effects of puerarin on CYP2D6 and CYP1A2 activities in vivo. Arch Pharm Res 2010;33(2):243-246.
  • Zheng, J., Yang, B., Huang, T., Yu, Y., Yang, J., and Li, D. Green tea and black tea consumption and prostate cancer risk: an exploratory meta-analysis of observational studies. Nutr.Cancer 2011;63(5):663-672.
  • Zhou Q, Li H, Zhou JG, Ma Y, Wu T, Ma H. Green tea, black tea consumption and risk of endometrial cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2016;293(1):143-55.
  • Zhou, Y., Li, N., Zhuang, W., Liu, G., Wu, T., Yao, X., Du, L., Wei, M., and Wu, X. Green tea and gastric cancer risk: meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies. Asia Pac.J Clin Nutr. 2008;17(1):159-165.
  • Zijp IM, Korver O, Tijburg LB. Effect of tea and other dietary factors on iron absorption. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2000;40:371-98.
  • Zuchinali P, Riberio PA, Pimentel M, da Rosa PR, Zimerman LI, Rohde LE. Effect of caffeine on ventricular arrhythmia: a systematic review and meta-analysis of experimental and clinical studies. Europace 2016 Feb;18(2):257-66.

Lemon peel

  • Abdelkawy KS, Donia AM, Turner RB, Elbarbry F. Effects of Lemon and Seville Orange Juices on the Pharmacokinetic Properties of Sildenafil in Healthy Subjects. Drugs R D. 2016 Sep;16(3):271-278.
  • Ademosun AO, Mohammed A, Oboh G, Ajeigbe OF. Influence of lemon (Citrus limon) and lime (Citrus aurantifolia) juices on the erectogenic properties of sildenafil in rats with L-NAME-induced erectile dysfunction. J Food Biochem 2022;46(2):e14074.
  • Ameri A, Poshtmahi S, Heydarirad G, et al. Effect of Honey-Lemon Spray Versus Benzydamine Hydrochloride Spray on Radiation-Induced Acute Oral Mucositis in Head and Neck Cancer Patients: A Pilot, Randomized, Double-Blind, Active-Controlled Clinical Trial. J Altern Complement Med 2021;27(3):255-262.
  • Aras B, Kalfazade N, Tugcu V, Kemahli E, Ozbay B, Polat H, Tasçi AI. Can lemon juice be an alternative to potassium citrate in the treatment of urinary calcium stones in patients with hypocitraturia? A prospective randomized study. Urol Res. 2008 Dec;36(6):313-7.
  • Bear WL, Teel RW. Effects of citrus flavonoids on the mutagenicity of heterocyclic amines and on cytochrome P450 1A2 activity. Anticancer Res 2000;20:3609-14.
  • Bear WL, Teel RW. Effects of citrus phytochemicals on liver and lung cytochrome P450 activity and on the in vitro metabolism of the tobacco specific nitrosamine NNK. Anticancer Res 2000;20:3323-30.
  • Ceccarelli I, Lariviere WR, Fiorenzani P, et al. Effects of long-term exposure of lemon essential oil odor on behavioral, hormonal and neuronal parameters in male and female rats. Brain Res 2004;1001:78-86.
  • Electronic Code of Federal Regulations. Title 21. Part 182 — Substances Generally Recognized As Safe. Available at: https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?CFRPart=182
  • Freitas D, Boué F, Benallaoua M, Airinei G, Benamouzig R, Le Feunteun S. Lemon juice, but not tea, reduces the glycemic response to bread in healthy volunteers: a randomized crossover trial. Eur J Nutr. 2020.
  • Freitas D, Boué F, Benallaoua M, et al. Glycemic response, satiety, gastric secretions and emptying after bread consumption with water, tea or lemon juice: a randomized crossover intervention using MRI. Eur J Nutr 2022;61(3):1621-1636.
  • Goepfert M, Liebl P, Herth N, Ciarlo G, Buentzel J, Huebner J. Aroma oil therapy in palliative care: a pilot study with physiological parameters in conscious as well as unconscious patients. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2017;143(10):2123-2129.
  • Hashemipour M, Kargar M, Ghannadi A, Kelishadi R. The effect of Citrus Aurantifolia (Lemon) peels on cardiometabolic risk factors and markers of endothelial function in adolescents with excess weight: A triple-masked randomized controlled trial. Med J Islam Repub Iran. 2016 Oct 18;30:429. PMID: 28210594; PMCID: PMC5307599.
  • Hoffmann A, Klein SD, Gründemann C, Garcia-Käufer M, Wolf U, Huber R. Efficacy of a nasal spray from Citrus limon and Cydonia oblonga for the treatment of hay fever symptoms-A randomized, placebo controlled cross-over study. Phytother Res. 2016;30(9):1481-6.
  • Ikeda H, Iida T, Hiramitsu M, et al. Effects of Lemon Beverage Containing Citric Acid with Calcium Supplementation on Bone Metabolism and Mineral Density in Postmenopausal Women: Double-Blind 11-Month Intervention Study. J Nutr Metab 2021;2021:8824753.
  • Kato Y, Domoto T, Hiramitsu M, Katagiri T, Sato K, Miyake Y, Aoi S, Ishihara K, Ikeda H, Umei N, Takigawa A, Harada T. Effect on blood pressure of daily lemon ingestion and walking. J Nutr Metab. 2014;2014:912684.
  • Kreye G, Wasl M, Dietz A, et al. Aromatherapy in Palliative Care: A Single-Institute Retrospective Analysis Evaluating the Effect of Lemon Oil Pads against Nausea and Vomiting in Advanced Cancer Patients. Cancers (Basel) 2022;14(9):2131.
  • Liu D, Shao L, Zhang Y, Kang W. Safety and efficacy of Lactobacillus for preventing necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants. Int J Surg. 2020;76:79-87.
  • Matsuzaki K, Nakajima A, Guo Y, Ohizumi Y. A Narrative Review of the Effects of Citrus Peels and Extracts on Human Brain Health and Metabolism. Nutrients. 2022 Apr 28;14(9):1847. doi: 10.3390/nu14091847. PMID: 35565814; PMCID: PMC9103913.
  • Miyake Y, Murakami A, Sugiyama Y, et al. Identification of coumarins from lemon fruit (Citrus limon) as inhibitors of in vitro tumor promotion and superoxide and nitric oxide generation. J Agric Food Chem 1999;47:3151-7.
  • Miyake Y, Yamamoto K, Tsujihara N, Osawa T. Protective effects of lemon flavonoids on oxidative stress in diabetic rats. Lipids 1998;33:689-95.
  • Moufida S, Marzouk B. Biochemical characterization of blood orange, sweet orange, lemon, bergamot and bitter orange. Phytochemistry 2003;62:1283-9.
  • Naganuma M, Hirose S, Nakayama Y, et al. A study of the phototoxicity of lemon oil. Arch Dermatol Res 1985;278:31-6.
  • Nakayama M, Okizaki A, Takahashi K. A Randomized Controlled Trial for the Effectiveness of Aromatherapy in Decreasing Salivary Gland Damage following Radioactive Iodine Therapy for Differentiated Thyroid Cancer. Biomed Res Int. 2016;2016:9509810.
  • Rafiq, Shafiya; Kaul, Rajkumari; Sofi, S. A.; Bashir, Nadia; Nazir, Fiza; Nayik, Gulzar Ahmad – Citrus peel as a source of functional ingredient: A review, Journal of the Saudi Society of Agricultural Sciences, Volume 17, Issue 4, 2018, Pages 351-358, ISSN 1658-077X, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jssas.2016.07.006.
  • Rambod M, Rakhshan M, Tohidinik S, Nikoo MH. The effect of lemon inhalation aromatherapy on blood pressure, electrocardiogram changes, and anxiety in acute myocardial infarction patients: A clinical, multi-centered, assessor-blinded trial design. Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2020;39:101155.
  • Ranganna S, Govindarajan VS, Ramana KV. Citrus fruits. Part II. Chemistry, technology, and quality evaluation. A. Chemistry. Critical Rev Food Sci Nutr 1983;19:313-86.
  • Ranganna S, Govindarajan VS, Ramana KV. Citrus fruits. Part II. Chemistry, technology, and quality evaluation. B. Technology. Critical Rev Food Sci Nutr 1983;19:1-98.
  • Riaz A, Khan RA, Algahtani HA. Memory boosting effect of Citrus limon, Pomegranate and their combinations. Pak J Pharm Sci. 2014 Nov;27(6):1837-40.
  • Sabry, Bassem A.; Badr, Ahmed Noah; Ahmed, Kawkab A.; Desoukey, Marwa A.; Mohammed, Dina Mostafa – Utilizing lemon peel extract and its nano-emulsion to control aflatoxin toxicity in rats, Food Bioscience, Volume 50, Part A, 2022, 101998, ISSN 2212-4292, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fbio.2022.101998.
  • Seltzer MA, Low RK, McDonald M, et al. Dietary manipulation with lemonade to treat hypocitraturic calcium nephrolithiasis. J Urol 1996;156:907-9.
  • Umemura K, Katada Y, Nakagawa S, et al. Improved absorption of itraconazole tablet by co-administration with lemon beverages in a lung transplant recipient: A case report. J Infect Chemother 2022;28(8):1203-1207.
  • Williams HL Jr. Eriodictyol glycoside in meniere’s disease. Trans Am Acad Ophthalmol Otolaryngol 1964;68:45-59.
  • Williams HL, Maher FT, Corbin KB, et al. Eriodictyol glycoside in the treatment of meni’ere’s disease. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 1963;72:1082-101.
  • Yavari Kia P, Safajou F, Shahnazi M, Nazemiyeh H. The effect of lemon inhalation aromatherapy on nausea and vomiting of pregnancy: a double-blinded, randomized, controlled clinical trial. Iran Red Crescent Med J. 2014 Mar;16(3):e14360.

Lemon Verbena

  • Afrasiabian F, Mirabzadeh Ardakani M, Rahmani K, et al. Aloysia citriodora Palau (lemon verbena) for insomnia patients: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of efficacy and safety. Phytother Res. 2019;33(2):350-359.
  • Boix-Castejón M, Herranz-López M, Pérez Gago A, et al. Hibiscus and lemon verbena polyphenols modulate appetite-related biomarkers in overweight subjects: a randomized controlled trial. Food Funct. 2018;9(6):3173-3184.
  • Buchwald-Werner S, Naka I, Wilhelm M, Schütz E, Schoen C, Reule C. Effects of lemon verbena extract (Recoverben) supplementation on muscle strength and recovery after exhaustive exercise: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2018 Jan 23;15:5.
  • Caturla N, Funes L, Perez-Fons L, Micol V. A randomized, double-blindcd, placebo-controlled study of the effect of a combination of lemon verbena extract and fish oil omega 3 fatty acid on joint management. J Altern Complement Med 2011;17:1051.
  • Electronic Code of Federal Regulations. Title 21. Part 182 — Substances Generally Recognized As Safe. Available at: https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?CFRPart=182
  • Lee MC, Hsu YJ, Ho CS, et al. Evaluation of the efficacy of supplementation with Planox® lemon verbena extract in improving oxidative stress and muscle damage: a randomized double-blind controlled trial. Int J Med Sci. 2021;18(12):2641-52.
  • Martínez-Rodríguez A, Martínez-Olcina M, Mora J, Navarro P, Caturla N, Jones J. Anxiolytic effect and improved sleep quality in individuals taking Lippia citriodora extract. Nutrients. 2022;14(1):218.
  • Mashayekhi-Sardoo H, Razavi BM, Ekhtiari M, Kheradmand N, Imenshahidi M. Gastroprotective effects of both aqueous and ethanolic extracts of lemon verbena leaves against indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in rats. Iran J Basic Med Sci. 2020;23(12):1639-46.
  • Mauriz E, Vallejo D, Tuñón MJ, et al. Effects of dietary supplementation with lemon verbena extracts on serum inflammatory markers of multiple sclerosis patients. Nutr Hosp. 2014 Nov 4;31(2):764-71.

Conditions Of Use And Important Information

This information is meant to supplement, not replace advice from your doctor or healthcare provider and is not meant to cover all possible uses, precautions, interactions or adverse effects. This information may not fit your specific health circumstances. Never delay or disregard seeking professional medical advice from your doctor or other qualified health care provider because of something you have read on our website. You should always speak with your doctor or health care professional before you start, stop, or change any prescribed part of your health care plan or treatment and to determine what course of therapy is right for you.

1 review for Eldergreen™ 50g

  1. Sophia Davis

    I love green tea and this one surprised me> I had it as a refreshing ice tea and now I’m drinking it hot. Try it and you’ll buy it, I’m sure.

Add a review