Refreshing Vitamin Tea™ 50g

£7.00

T’n’T Teas’® Refreshing Vitamin™ tea is the perfect blend that transforms your daily ritual into a fruity, tangy, and harmonious experience. Sip, smile, and let the vibrant flavours and healthful benefits transport you to a rejuvenating paradise.

Out of stock

Description

Embark on a delightful flavour journey with T’n’T Teas’® Refreshing Vitamin™ tea blend. It’s a harmonious infusion that will tantalise your taste buds, offering a symphony of tastes to savour. Sip your way to serenity as you experience the intricate balance of nature’s finest elements. Uncover a cup of pure well-being, crafted with dedication and expertise.

The Refreshing Vitamin™ tea is a refreshing blend of hibiscus, lavender, rosehips, spearmint, and nettle. This delightful concoction offers a burst of fruity and floral notes, paired with healthful goodness.

The adventure begins with the tangy embrace of hibiscus, like a burst of tropical flavour, followed by the calming influence of lavender, akin to a tranquil meadow. Rosehips contribute a zesty and tangy note, like a symphony of citrus, while spearmint adds a refreshing kick. Nettle joins the party, creating a harmonious herbal ensemble that’s like a nature hike for your taste buds.

Please use the button below to download the Wellbeing Factsheet that provides you with the benefits, side effects, contradictions and clinical/traditional evidence.

Factsheet button

We offer discounts if you buy more than 1. Buy 2 teas for £12, and 3 for £15 (additional teas charged at £5 each).

Additional information

Weight 50 g

Wellbeing / Side Effects

This blend is not only a delight to your palate but also a healthful hug for your body. Hibiscus is known for its antioxidant properties, while rosehips offer a vitamin C boost. Lavender promotes relaxation and balance, and spearmint aids digestion. Nettle provides essential vitamins and minerals, making this a well-rounded vitamin infusion.

The Refreshing Vitamin Mint™ Tea is a 100% natural product, it does not contain allergens or impurities, and it does not contain added flavours, so its consumption should not cause unpleasant stomach upsets.

T’n’T Teas® Refreshing Vitamin Mint™ Tea is a certified, premium quality professionally mixed product, made with the highest quality, medicinal natural herbs from around the world. We pay special attention to the purity of the plants, so we only buy the certified raw materials for our products from reliable, controlled sources, so we can ensure that we minimise contact with foreign substances during storage, transportation, and production.

This tea blend is generally well-tolerated, but there are a few potential side effects to be aware of:
Hibiscus: Hibiscus may interact with certain medications, such as blood pressure medications (lowering blood pressure) and diuretics. Additionally, pregnant and breastfeeding women should talk to their doctor before consuming hibiscus.

Lavender: Lavender may interact with certain medications, such as sedatives and anxiety medications. Additionally, pregnant and breastfeeding women should talk to their doctor before consuming lavender.

Rosehips: Rosehips may interact with certain medications, such as blood thinners and diuretics. Additionally, pregnant and breastfeeding women should talk to their doctor before consuming rosehips.

Spearmint: Spearmint may interact with certain medications, such as blood pressure medications (increasing blood pressure) and diuretics. Additionally, pregnant and breastfeeding women should talk to their doctor before consuming spearmint.

Nettle: Nettle may interact with diuretics and lithium. Additionally, pregnant and breastfeeding women should talk to their doctor before consuming nettle.

Allergens:
This tea blend is naturally free of common allergens, but it is always important to check the ingredient list for specific concerns.

Contraindications
Avoid this tea blend if you have known allergies to any of the listed ingredients. Consult your healthcare provider if pregnant, nursing, or with specific health conditions. Not suitable for children under 12 years.

For legal reasons, we are prohibited from advertising the well-being benefits or possible side effects of this tea. Please contact us for a free consultation for more information.

CAUTION: Herbs have medicinal properties and can promote the body’s physical and mental self-healing and harmonising process, but they cannot replace medical examination, care and possible treatment – so if you are on medication from your doctor, please check that they are happy for you to drink the tea. If you feel any discomfort, stop and only restart slowly if you are comfortable doing so (it might not be the herbal tea that causes the discomfort!). Pregnant or breastfeeding women, or children under the age of 12 years old, should exercise extra caution.

For a detailed description, please look at the individual ingredients.

Profile

Colour: A vibrant, sunset-inspired infusion that’s as lively as a tropical paradise.
Aroma: It’s a playful fiesta of fruity and floral notes, like an enticing luau in your cup.
Initial taste: The first sip is like a splash of sunshine, with tangy hibiscus and zesty rosehips taking center stage.
Midtones: Lavender adds a touch of tranquility, and spearmint brings a refreshing twist, like a tropical breeze.
Aftertaste: A hint of serenity lingers, like the soothing sound of ocean waves, leaving you refreshed.
Body: It’s a light and invigorating dance on your palate, like a beachside stroll on a sunny day.
Caffeine content: This tea blend is caffeine-free, ensuring a serene and playful sip without any jitters.

Ingredients

HibiscusHibiscus

RosehipsRosehips

LavenderLavender

SpearmintSpearmint

NettleNettle

Cruelty-free logoGMO-Free. Suitable for vegans.

Warning: Prepared in an area where Mustard seed & Celery are also used. Herbs have medicinal properties that will affect the body but should not replace examination and advice from your medical practitioner. Please check that they are happy for you to drink herbal infusions. If you feel any discomfort, stop immediately and find out the cause (it may not be herbal tea that caused the discomfort!).

This tea contains 100% natural products without allergens or impurities, and no added flavours or colourants, so its consumption should not cause any unpleasant stomach upsets. Please refer to possible side effects on this website.

Certified Origins

Bulgarian flag Egyptian flag Hungarian flag denoting that one or more ingredient was ethically sourced from Hungary.Nigerian flag denoting that one or more ingredient was ethicall sourced from Nigeria..

Hand-blended in Shropshire, England.

Preparation

“Brewing Paradise!” – Preparation notes for T’n’T Teas’® Refreshing Vitamin™ tea blend:

  1. Tropical vibes: Get into the spirit! Grab your favourite cup or teapot, and let’s embark on a flavour-filled adventure.
  2. Fruity fiesta: Scoop a teaspoon of our Refreshing Vitamin™ tea blend. Hibiscus, lavender, rosehips, spearmint, and nettle are ready to party.
  3. Sunshine brew: Heat fresh, cold water to around 96°C (205°F). We’re creating a tropical paradise here!
  4. Luau steeping: Pour the hot water over the tea blend, like a waterfall cascading into a lagoon. Let them steep for 10-15 minutes.
  5. Aloha lid: Cover your cup or teapot with a lid while the herbs and spices create their luau magic.
  6. Tropical twist: If you like, add a slice of pineapple or a squeeze of lime. It’s your personal luau touch to the fiesta.
  7. Strain and sip: The tropical show’s about to begin! Strain the tea blend, and let the luau commence.
  8. Sip and smile: Hold your cup close and sip the fruity and floral flavors. It’s like attending a beachside party with friends.
  9. Encore anytime: The fiesta doesn’t have to end after one act. Feel free to steep another round and keep the luau going.
  10. Island bliss: Store your tea blend in a cool, dry place, ready for the next tropical adventure.

Get ready to sip and savour the playful flavours of T’n’T Teas’® Refreshing Vitamin™ tea blend. Let the luau of fruity and floral goodness begin!

For the best flavour, store in a cool dark place.

Clinical References

Clinical evidence of the ingredients found in this product. These are public domain references and do not relate directly to our product.

Hibiscus

  • Abubakar SM, Ukeyima MT, Spencer JPE, Lovegrove JA. Acute effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyces on postprandial blood pressure, vascular function, blood lipids, biomarkers of insulin resistance and inflammation in humans. Nutrients. 2019;11(2). pii: E341.
  • Ahad A, Raish M, Bin Jardan YA, Alam MA, Al-Mohizea AM, Al-Jenoobi FI. Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa and Zingiber officinale on the antihypertensive activity and pharmacokinetic of losartan in hypertensive rats. Xenobiotica. 2020:1-11.
  • Al-Anbaki M, Cavin AL, Nogueira RC, et al. Hibiscus sabdariffa, a Treatment for Uncontrolled Hypertension. Pilot Comparative Intervention. Plants (Basel) 2021;10(5):1018.
  • Al-Anbaki M, Nogueira RC, Cavin AL, et al. Treating uncontrolled hypertension with Hibiscus sabdariffa when standard treatment is insufficient: Pilot intervention. J Altern Complement Med. 2019;25(12):1200-1205.
  • Alam MA, Bin Jardan YA, Alzenaidy B, et al. Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa and Zingiber officinale on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of amlodipine. J Pharm Pharmacol 2021;73(9):1151-60.
  • Alarcón-Alonso J, Zamilpa A, Aguilar FA, Herrera-Ruiz M, Tortoriello J, Jimenez-Ferrer E. Pharmacological characterization of the diuretic effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn (Malvaceae) extract. J Ethnopharmacol. 2012 Feb 15;139(3):751-6.
  • Ali, B. H., Al, Wabel N., and Blunden, G. Phytochemical, pharmacological and toxicological aspects of Hibiscus sabdariffa L.: a review. Phytother.Res 2005;19(5):369-375.
  • Asgary S, Soltani R, Zolghadr M, Keshvari M, Sarrafzadegan N. Evaluation of the effects of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) on oxidative stress and serum levels of lipids, insulin and hs-CRP in adult patients with metabolic syndrome: a double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. J Complement Integr Med. 2016;13(2):175-80.
  • Aziz Z, Wong SY, Chong NJ. Effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. on serum lipids: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Ethnopharmacol. 2013 Nov 25;150(2):442-50.
  • Baranova, V. S., Rusina, I. F., Guseva, D. A., Prozorovskaia, N. N., Ipatova, O. M., and Kasaikina, O. T. [The antiradical activity of plant extracts and healthful preventive combinations of these exrtacts with the phospholipid complex]. Biomed.Khim. 2012;58(6):712-726.
  • Barletta C, Paccone M, Uccello N, et al. Efficacy of food supplement Acidif plus in the treatment of uncomplicated UTIs in women: a pilot observational study. Minerva Ginecol. 2020;72(2):70-74.
  • Boix-Castejón M, Herranz-López M, Pérez Gago A, et al. Hibiscus and lemon verbena polyphenols modulate appetite-related biomarkers in overweight subjects: a randomized controlled trial. Food Funct. 2018;9(6):3173-3184.
  • Builders PF, Kabele-Toge B, Builders M, Chindo BA, Anwunobi PA, Isimi YC. Wound healing potential of formulated extract from hibiscus sabdariffa calyx. Indian J Pharm Sci. 2013 Jan;75(1):45-52.
  • Bule M, Albelbeisi AH, Nikfar S, Amini M, Abdollahi M. The antidiabetic and antilipidemic effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. Food Res Int. 2020;130:108980.
  • Cai T, Tamanini I, Cocci A, et al. Xyloglucan, hibiscus and propolis to reduce symptoms and antibiotics use in recurrent UTIs: a prospective study. Future Microbiol. 2019;14:1013-1021.
  • Chou ST, Lo HY, Li CC, Cheng LC, Chou PC, Lee YC, Ho TY, Hsiang CY. Exploring the effect and mechanism of Hibiscus sabdariffa on urinary tract infection and experimental renal inflammation. J Ethnopharmacol. 2016 Dec 24;194:617-625.
  • Da-Costa-Rocha I, Bonnlaender B, Sievers H, Pischel I, Heinrich M. Hibiscus sabdariffa L. – a phytochemical and pharmacological review. Food Chem. 2014 Dec 15;165:424-43.
  • Diantini A, Rahmat S, Alpiani A, Sumiwi SA, Lubis L, Levita J. Effect of the roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) calyces drink on the physiological parameters of healthy adult subjects. Biomed Rep 2021;15(5):89.
  • El Basheir, Z. M. and Fouad, M. A. A preliminary pilot survey on head lice, pediculosis in Sharkia Governorate and treatment of lice with natural plant extracts. J.Egypt.Soc.Parasitol. 2002;32(3):725-736.
  • Electronic Code of Federal Regulations. Title 21. Part 182 — Substances Generally Recognized As Safe. Available at: https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?CFRPart=182
  • Elkafrawy N, Younes K, Naguib A, et al. Antihypertensive efficacy and safety of a standardized herbal medicinal product of Hibiscus sabdariffa and Olea europaea extracts (NW Roselle): A phase-II, randomized, double-blind, captopril-controlled clinical trial. Phytother Res. 2020;34(12):3379-3387.
  • Fakeye TO, Adegoke AO, Omoyeni OC, Famakinde AA. Effects of water extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa, Linn (Malvaceae) ‘Roselle’ on excretion of a diclofenac formulation. Phytother Res. 2007;21(1):96-8.
  • Frank, T., Janssen, M., Netzel, M., Strass, G., Kler, A., Kriesl, E., and Bitsch, I. Pharmacokinetics of anthocyanidin-3-glycosides following consumption of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. extract. J Clin Pharmacol 2005;45(2):203-210.
  • Frank, T., Netzel, G., Kammerer, D. R., Carle, R., Kler, A., Kriesl, E., Bitsch, I., Bitsch, R., and Netzel, M. Consumption of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. aqueous extract and its impact on systemic antioxidant potential in healthy subjects. J Sci Food Agric. 8-15-2012;92(10):2207-2218.
  • Gurrola-Diaz, C. M., Garcia-Lopez, P. M., Sanchez-Enriquez, S., Troyo-Sanroman, R., Andrade-Gonzalez, I., and Gomez-Leyva, J. F. Effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa extract powder and preventive treatment (diet) on the lipid profiles of patients with metabolic syndrome (MeSy). Phytomedicine. 2010;17(7):500-505.
  • Hadi A, Pourmasoumi M, Kafeshani M, Karimian J, Maracy MR, Entezari MH. The Effect of Green Tea and Sour Tea (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) Supplementation on Oxidative Stress and Muscle Damage in Athletes. J Diet Suppl. 2017 May 4;14(3):346-357.
  • Haji, Faraji M. and Haji, Tarkhani A. The effect of sour tea (Hibiscus sabdariffa) on essential hypertension. J.Ethnopharmacol. 1999;65(3):231-236.
  • Hernandez-Perez, F. and Herrera-Arellano, A. [Therapeutic use Hibiscus sabadariffa extract in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. A randomized clinical trial]. Rev.Med Inst.Mex.Seguro.Soc. 2011;49(5):469-480.
  • Herranz-López M, Olivares-Vicente M, Boix-Castejón M, Caturla N, Roche E, Micol V. Differential effects of a combination of Hibiscus sabdariffa and Lippia citriodora polyphenols in overweight/obese subjects: A randomized controlled trial. Sci Rep. 2019;9(1):2999.
  • Herrera-Arellano, A., Flores-Romero, S., Chavez-Soto, M. A., and Tortoriello, J. Effectiveness and tolerability of a standardized extract from Hibiscus sabdariffa in patients with mild to moderate hypertension: a controlled and randomized clinical trial. Phytomedicine. 2004;11(5):375-382.
  • Herrera-Arellano, A., Miranda-Sanchez, J., Avila-Castro, P., Herrera-Alvarez, S., Jimenez-Ferrer, J. E., Zamilpa, A., Roman-Ramos, R., Ponce-Monter, H., and Tortoriello, J. Clinical effects produced by a standardized herbal medicinal product of Hibiscus sabdariffa on patients with hypertension. A randomized, double-blind, lisinopril-controlled clinical trial. Planta Med 2007;73(1):6-12.
  • Iyare EE, Adegoke OA. Maternal consumption of an aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa during lactation accelerates postnatal weight and delays onset of puberty in female offspring. Niger J Physiol Sci. 2008 Jun-Dec;23(1-2):89-94.
  • Jalalyazdi M, Ramezani J, Izadi-Moud A, Madani-Sani F, Shahlaei S, Ghiasi SS. Effect of hibiscus sabdariffa on blood pressure in patients with stage 1 hypertension. J Adv Pharm Technol Res. 2019;10(3):107-111.
  • Johnson SS, Oyelola FT, Ari T, Juho H. In vitro inhibitory activities of the extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (family Malvaceae) on selected cytochrome P450 isoforms. Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. 2013 Apr 12;10(3):533-40.
  • Kolawole JA, Maduenyi A. Effect of zobo drink (Hibiscus sabdariffa water extract) on pharmacokinetics of acetaminophen in human volunteers. Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 2004;29:25-9.
  • Kuriyan R, Kumar DR, Rajendran R, Kurpad AV. An evaluation of the hypolipidemic effect of an extract of Hibiscus Sabdariffa leaves in hyperlipidemic Indians: a double blind, placebo controlled trial. BMC Complement Altern Med 2010;10:27.
  • Lee CH, Kuo CY, Wang CJ, Wang CP, Lee YR, Hung CN, Lee HJ. A polyphenol extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. ameliorates acetaminophen-induced hepatic steatosis by attenuating the mitochondrial dysfunction in vivo and in vitro. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2012;76(4):646-51.
  • Levrini L, Azzi L, Bossi S. The efficacy of a dietary supplement with carnosine and Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (AqualiefTM) in patients with xerostomia: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. Clin Ter 2020;171(4):e295-e301.
  • Mahmoud, B. M., Ali, H. M., Homeida, M. M., and Bennett, J. L. Significant reduction in chloroquine bioavailability following coadministration with the Sudanese beverages Aradaib, Karkadi and Lemon. J.Antimicrob.Chemother. 1994;33(5):1005-1009.
  • Marhuenda J, Pérez-Piñero S, Arcusa R, et al. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to determine the effectiveness of a polyphenolic extract (Hibiscus sabdariffa and Lippia citriodora) for reducing blood pressure in prehypertensive and type 1 hypertensive subjects. Molecules. 2021;26(6):1783.
  • McKay DL, Chen CY, Saltzman E, Blumberg JB. Hibiscus Sabdariffa L. tea (tisane) lowers blood pressure in prehypertensive and mildly hypertensive adults. J Nutr 2010;140:298-303.
  • Micucci M, Angeletti A, Cont M, Corazza I, Aldini R, Donadio E, Chiarini A, Budriesi R. Hibiscus Sabdariffa L. Flowers and Olea Europea L. Leaves Extract-Based Formulation for Hypertension Care: In Vitro Efficacy and Toxicological Profile. J Med Food. 2016 May;19(5):504-12.
  • Milandri R, Maltagliati M, Bocchialini T, et al. Effectiveness of D-mannose, Hibiscus sabdariffa and Lactobacillus plantarum therapy in prevention of infectious events following urodynamic study. Urologia. 2019;86(3):122-125.
  • Mohagheghi A, Maghsoud S, Khashayar P, Ghazi-Khansari M. The effect of hibiscus sabdariffa on lipid profile, creatinine, and serum electrolytes: a randomized clinical trial. ISRN Gastroenterol. 2011;2011:976019.
  • Mohamed R, Fernandez J, Pineda M, Aguilar M. Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) seed oil Is a rich source of gamma-tocopherol. J Food Sci 2007;72:S207-11.
  • Mozaffari-Khosravi H, Ahadi Z, Barzegar K. The effect of green tea and sour tea on blood pressure of patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized clinical trial. J Diet Suppl. 2013 Jun;10(2):105-15.
  • Mozaffari-Khosravi, H., Jalali-Khanabadi, B. A., Afkhami-Ardekani, M., and Fatehi, F. Effects of sour tea (Hibiscus sabdariffa) on lipid profile and lipoproteins in patients with type II diabetes. J Altern.Complement Med 2009;15(8):899-903.
  • Mozaffari-Khosravi, H., Jalali-Khanabadi, B. A., Afkhami-Ardekani, M., Fatehi, F., and Noori-Shadkam, M. The effects of sour tea (Hibiscus sabdariffa) on hypertension in patients with type II diabetes. J Hum.Hypertens 2009;23(1):48-54.
  • Najafpour Boushehri S, Karimbeiki R, Ghasempour S, et al. The efficacy of sour tea (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) on selected cardiovascular disease risk factors: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. Phytother Res. 2020;34(2):329-339.
  • Ngamjarus C, Pattanittum P, Somboonporn C. Roselle for hypertension in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2010:1:CD007894.
  • Nwachukwu DC, Aneke E, Nwachukwu NZ, Obika LF, Nwagha UI, Eze AA. Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffaon blood pressure and electrolyte profile of mild to moderate hypertensive Nigerians: A comparative study with hydrochlorothiazide. Niger J Clin Pract. 2015 Nov-Dec;18(6):762-70.
  • Sabzghabaee AM, Ataei E, Kelishadi R, Ghannadi A, Soltani R, Badri S, Shirani S. Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa Calices on Dyslipidemia in Obese Adolescents: A Triple-masked Randomized Controlled Trial. Mater Sociomed. 2013;25(2):76-9.
  • Serban C, Sahebkar A, Ursoniu S, Andrica F, Banach M. Effect of sour tea (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) on arterial hypertension: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Hypertens. 2015 Jun;33(6):1119-27.
  • Showande SJ, Adegbolagun OM, Igbinoba SI, Fakeye TO. In vivo pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic interactions of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyces extracts with simvastatin. J Clin Pharm Ther. 2017;42(6):695-703.
  • Souirti Z, Loukili M, Soudy ID, et al. Hibiscus sabdariffa increases hydroxocobalamin oral bioavailability and clinical efficacy in vitamin B(12) deficiency with neurological symptoms. Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 2016;30(6):568-576.
  • Wahabi, H. A., Alansary, L. A., Al-Sabban, A. H., and Glasziuo, P. The effectiveness of Hibiscus sabdariffa in the treatment of hypertension: a systematic review. Phytomedicine. 2010;17(2):83-86.
  • Zhang B, Yue R, Wang Y, et al. Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa (Roselle) supplementation in regulating blood lipids among patients with metabolic syndrome and related disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Phytother Res. 2020;34(5):1083-1095.

Lavender

  • Abbasijahromi A, Hojati H, Nikooei S, et al. Compare the effect of aromatherapy using lavender and Damask rose essential oils on the level of anxiety and severity of pain following C-section: A double-blinded randomized clinical trial. J Complement Integr Med. 2019.
  • Abdelhakim AM, Hussein AS, Doheim MF, Sayed AK. The effect of inhalation aromatherapy in patients undergoing cardiac surgery: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Complement Ther Med. 2020;48:102256.
  • Ahmad R, Naqvi AA, Al-Bukhaytan HM, Al-Nasser AH, Baqer Al-Ebrahim AH. Evaluation of aromatherapy with lavender oil on academic stress: A randomized placebo controlled clinical trial. Contemp Clin Trials Commun. 2019;14:100346.
  • Akhondzadeh S, Kashani L, Fotouhi A, et al. Comparison of Lavandula angustifolia Mill. tincture and imipramine in the treatment of mild to moderate depression: a double-blind, randomized trial. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2003;27:123-7.
  • Altaei, D. T. Topical lavender oil for the treatment of recurrent aphthous ulceration. Am J Dent 2012;25(1):39-43.
  • Amirhosseini M, Dehghan M, Mangolian Shahrbabaki P, Pakmanesh H. Effectiveness of aromatherapy for relief of pain, nausea, and vomiting after percutaneous nephrolithotomy: a randomized controlled trial. Complement Med Res 2020:1-9.
  • Anderson C, Lis-Balchin M, Kirk-Smith M. Evaluation of massage with essential oils on childhood atopic eczema. Phytother Res 2000;14(6):452-6.
  • Apay, S. E., Arslan, S., Akpinar, R. B., and Celebioglu, A. Effect of aromatherapy massage on dysmenorrhea in Turkish students. Pain Manag.Nurs. 2012;13(4):236-240.
  • Araj-Khodaei M, Noorbala AA, Yarani R, et al. A double-blind, randomized pilot study for comparison of Melissa officinalis L. and Lavandula angustifolia Mill. with Fluoxetine for the treatment of depression. BMC Complement Med Ther. 2020;20(1):207.
  • Ardahan Akgül E, Karakul A, Altin A, Dogan P, Hosgör M, Oral A. Effectiveness of lavender inhalation aromatherapy on pain level and vital signs in children with burns: a randomized controlled trial. Complement Ther Med 2021;60:102758.
  • Arslan I, Aydinoglu S, Karan NB. Can lavender oil inhalation help to overcome dental anxiety and pain in children? A randomized clinical trial. Eur J Pediatr. 2020;179(6):985-992.
  • Bagheri-Nesami M, Espahbodi F, Nikkhah A, Shorofi SA, Charati JY. The effects of lavender aromatherapy on pain following needle insertion into a fistula in hemodialysis patients. Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2014;20(1):1-4.
  • Bagheri-Nesami M, Shorofi SA, Nikkhah A, Espahbodi F, Ghaderi Koolaee FS. The effects of aromatherapy with lavender essential oil on fatigue levels in haemodialysis patients: a randomized clinical trial. Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2016 Feb;22:33-7.
  • Bakhtiari S, Paki S, Khalili A, et al. Effect of lavender aromatherapy through inhalation on quality of life among postmenopausal women covered by a governmental health center in Isfahan, Iran: A single-blind clinical trial. Complement Ther Clin Pract 2019;34:46-50. doi: 10.1016/j.ctcp.2018.11.001.
  • Barker SC and Altman PM. A randomised, assessor blind, parallel group comparative efficacy trial of three products for the treatment of head lice in children–melaleuca oil and lavender oil, pyrethrins and piperonyl butoxide, and a “suffocation” product. BMC Dermatol 2010;10:6.
  • Barker SC and Altman PM. An ex vivo, assessor blind, randomised, parallel group, comparative efficacy trial of the ovicidal activity of three pediculicides after a single application–melaleuca oil and lavender oil, eucalyptus oil and lemon tea tree oil, and a “suffocation” pediculicide. BMC Dermatol 2011;11:14.
  • Bazrafshan MR, Jokar M, Shokrpour N, Delam H. The effect of lavender herbal tea on the anxiety and depression of the elderly: A randomized clinical trial. Complement Ther Med. 2020;50:102393.
  • Beyliklioglu A, Arslan S. Effect of lavender oil on the anxiety of patients before breast surgery. J Perianesth Nurs. 2019;34(3):587-593.
  • Bikmoradi A, Seifi Z, Poorolajal J, et al. Effect of inhalation aromatherapy with lavender essential oil on stress and vital signs in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery: A single-blinded randomized clinical trial. Complement Ther Med. 2015;23(3):331-8.
  • Bingham LJ, Tam MM, Palmer AM, Cahill JL, Nixon RL. Contact allergy and allergic contact dermatitis caused by lavender: A retrospective study from an Australian clinic. Contact Dermatitis. 2019;81(1):37-42.
  • Braden, R., Reichow, S., and Halm, M. A. The use of the essential oil lavandin to reduce preoperative anxiety in surgical patients. J Perianesth.Nurs. 2009;24(6):348-355.
  • Bradley, B. F., Brown, S. L., Chu, S., and Lea, R. W. Effects of orally administered lavender essential oil on responses to anxiety-provoking film clips. Hum.Psychopharmacol. 2009;24(4):319-330.
  • Brandao FM. Occupational allergy to lavender oil. Contact Dermatitis 1986;15(4):249-250.
  • Buckle J. Aromatherapy. NursTimes 5-19-1993;89(20):32-35.
  • Buckle J. Use of aromatherapy as a complementary treatment for chronic pain. Altern Ther Health Med 1999;5:42-51.
  • Burke YD, Stark MJ, Roach SL, and et al. Inhibition of pancreatic cancer growth by the dietary isoprenoids farnesol and geraniol. Lipids 1997;32(2):151-156.
  • Cassella JP, Cassella S, Ashford R, and Siddals E. Antifungal activity of tea tree and lavender essential oils in the treatment of Trichophyton rubrum infection. Focus on Alternative and Complementary Therapies 2001;6(1):74.
  • Cetinkaya, B. and Basbakkal, Z. The effectiveness of aromatherapy massage using lavender oil as a treatment for infantile colic. Int J Nurs.Pract. 2012;18(2):164-169.
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  • Rhodes, L., Primka, R. L., Berman, C., Vergult, G., Gabriel, M., Pierre-Malice, M., and Gibelin, B. Comparison of finasteride (Proscar), a 5 alpha reductase inhibitor, and various commercial plant extracts in in vitro and in vivo 5 alpha reductase inhibition. Prostate 1993;22(1):43-51.
  • Riehemann, K., Behnke, B., and Schulze-Osthoff, K. Plant extracts from stinging nettle (Urtica dioica), an antirheumatic remedy, inhibit the proinflammatory transcription factor NF-kB. FEBS Lett 1-8-1999;442(1):89-94.
  • Safarinejad, M. R. Urtica dioica for treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia: a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. J.Herb.Pharmacother. 2005;5(4):1-11.
  • Sahin, M., Yilmaz, H., Gursoy, A., Demirel, A. N., Tutuncu, N. B., and Guvener, N. D. Gynaecomastia in a man and hyperoestrogenism in a woman due to ingestion of nettle (Urtica dioica). N.Z.Med.J. 2007;120(1265):U2803.
  • Schneider H, Honold E, and Masuhr T. Treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia with a combination plant preparation. Results of an observational study of sabal extract WS 1473 and Urtica extract WS 1031 in the offices of urologists. Fortschr Med 1995;113(3):37-40.
  • Schneider, T. and Rubben, H. [Stinging nettle root extract (Bazoton-uno) in long term treatment of benign prostatic syndrome (BPS). Results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled multicenter study after 12 months]. Urologe A 2004;43(3):302-306.
  • Schottner M, Gansser D, Spiteller G, et al. Lignans from the roots of Urtica dioica and their metabolites bind to human sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). Planta Med 1997;63:529-32.
  • Schöttner M, Spiteller G, Gansser D. Lignans Interfering with 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone binding to human sex hormone-binding globulin. J Nat Prod. 1998;61(1):119-21.
  • Simões-Pires CA, Hmicha B, Marston A, Hostettmann K. A TLC bioautographic method for the detection of alpha- and beta-glucosidase inhibitors in plant extracts. Phytochem Anal. 2009;20(6):511-5.
  • Sokeland J, Albrecht J. [Combination of Sabal and Urtica extract vs. finasteride in benign prostatic hyperplasia (Aiken stages I to II). Comparison of therapeutic effectiveness in a one year double-blind study]. Urologe A 1997;36:327-33.
  • Sokeland J. Combined sabal and urtica extract compared with finasteride in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia: analysis of prostate volume and therapeutic outcome. BJU Int 2000;86:439-42.
  • Tabrizi R, Sekhavati E, Nowrouzi-Sohrabi P, et al. Effects of Urtica dioica on Metabolic Profiles in Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Clinical Trials. Mini Rev Med Chem 2022;22(3):550-563.
  • Tahri, A., Yamani, S., Legssyer, A., Aziz, M., Mekhfi, H., Bnouham, M., and Ziyyat, A. Acute diuretic, natriuretic and hypotensive effects of a continuous perfusion of aqueous extract of Urtica dioica in the rat. J Ethnopharmacol 2000;73(1-2):95-100.
  • Van der Weijden, G. A., Timmer, C. J., Timmerman, M. F., Reijerse, E., Mantel, M. S., and van, der, V. The effect of herbal extracts in an experimental mouthrinse on established plaque and gingivitis. J Clin Periodontol. 1998;25(5):399-403.
  • Van Parijs J, Broekaert WF, and Peumans WJ. Urtica dioica agglutinin: a plant lectin with antifungal properties. Archives Internationales de Physiologie et de Biochimie 1988;96(1):31.
  • Vontobel HP, Herzog R, Rutishauser G, Kres H. [Results of a double-blind study on the effectiveness of ERU (extractum radicis Urticae) capsules in conservative treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia]. (Abstract). Urologe A 1985;24:49-51.
  • Wagner H, Geiger WN, Boos G, and et al. Studies on the binding of Urtica dioica agglutinin (UDA) and other lectins in an in vitro epidermal growth factor receptor test. Phytomedicine 1995;4:287-290.
  • Wagner H, Willer F, Samtleben R, and et al. Search for the antiprostatic principle of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) roots. Phytomedicine 1994;1:213-224.
  • Younger J, Donovan EK, Hodgin KS, Ness TJ. A placebo-controlled, pseudo-randomized, crossover trial of botanical agents for Gulf war illness: Reishi mushroom (Ganoderma lucidum), stinging nettle (Urtica dioica), and Epimedium (Epimedium sagittatum). Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021;18(7):3671.
  • Ziaei R, Foshati S, Hadi A, et al. The effect of nettle (Urtica dioica) supplementation on the glycemic control of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Phytother Res 2020;34(2):282-94.

Rosehips

  • Basim, E. and Basim, H. Antibacterial activity of Rosa damascena essential oil. Fitoterapia 2003;74(4):394-396.
  • Biswas, N. R., Gupta, S. K., Das, G. K., Kumar, N., Mongre, P. K., Haldar, D., and Beri, S. Evaluation of Ophthacare eye drops–a herbal formulation in the management of various ophthalmic disorders. Phytother.Res. 2001;15(7):618-620.
  • Cho, E. J., Yokozawa, T., Rhyu, D. Y., Kim, S. C., Shibahara, N., and Park, J. C. Study on the inhibitory effects of Korean medicinal plants and their main compounds on the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical. Phytomedicine. 2003;10(6-7):544-551.
  • Chrubasik, C., Duke, R. K., and Chrubasik, S. The evidence for clinical efficacy of rose hip and seed: a systematic review. Phytother Res 2006;20(1):1-3.
  • Daels-Rakotoarison, D. A., Gressier, B., Trotin, F., Brunet, C., Luyckx, M., Dine, T., Bailleul, F., Cazin, M., and Cazin, J. C. Effects of Rosa canina fruit extract on neutrophil respiratory burst. Phytother.Res. 2002;16(2):157-161.
  • Dushkin, M. I., Zykov, A. A., and Pivovarova, E. N. [The effect of natural polyphenol compounds on the oxidative modification of low-density lipoproteins]. Biull.Eksp.Biol Med 1993;116(10):393-395.
  • Hornero-Mendez, D. and Minguez-Mosquera, M. I. Carotenoid pigments in Rosa mosqueta hips, an alternative carotenoid source for foods. J Agric Food Chem 2000;48(3):825-828.
  • Janse, van Rensburg, Erasmus, E., Loots, D. T., Oosthuizen, W., Jerling, J. C., Kruger, H. S., Louw, R., Brits, M., and van der Westhuizen, F. H. Rosa roxburghii supplementation in a controlled feeding study increases plasma antioxidant capacity and glutathione redox state. Eur J Nutr 2005;44(7):452-457.
  • Kumarasamy, Y., Cox, P. J., Jaspars, M., Nahar, L., and Sarker, S. D. Screening seeds of Scottish plants for antibacterial activity. J Ethnopharmacol 2002;83(1-2):73-77.
  • Larsen, E., Kharazmi, A., Christensen, L. P., and Christensen, S. B. An antiinflammatory galactolipid from rose hip (Rosa canina) that inhibits chemotaxis of human peripheral blood neutrophils in vitro. J.Nat.Prod. 2003;66(7):994-995.
  • Ma, Y. X., Zhu, Y., Wang, C. F., Wang, Z. S., Chen, S. Y., Shen, M. H., Gan, J. M., Zhang, J. G., Gu, Q., and He, L. The aging retarding effect of ‘Long-Life CiLi’. Mech.Ageing Dev 1997;96(1-3):171-180.
  • Moreno Gimenez, J. C., Bueno, J., Navas, J., and Camacho, F. [Treatment of skin ulcer using oil of mosqueta rose]. Med Cutan.Ibero.Lat.Am 1990;18(1):63-66.
  • Rein, E., Kharazmi, A., and Winther, K. A herbal remedy, Hyben Vital (stand. powder of a subspecies of Rosa canina fruits), reduces pain and improves general wellbeing in patients with osteoarthritis–a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised trial. Phytomedicine. 2004;11(5):383-391.
  • Rein, E., Kharazmi, A., Thamsborg, G., and Winther, K. Herbal remedy made from a subspecies of rose-hip Rosa canina reduces symptoms of knee and hip osteoarthritis. Osteoarthr Cartil 2004;12(Suppl 2):80.
  • Rossnagel, K. and Willich, S. N. [Value of complementary medicine exemplified by rose-hips]. Gesundheitswesen 2001;63(6):412-416.
  • Shabykin, G. P. and Godorazhi, A. I. [A polyvitamin preparation of fat-soluble vitamins (carotolin) and rose hip oil in the treatment of certain dermatoses]. Vestn.Dermatol.Venerol. 1967;41(4):71-73.
  • Shiota, S., Shimizu, M., Mizusima, T., Ito, H., Hatano, T., Yoshida, T., and Tsuchiya, T. Restoration of effectiveness of beta-lactams on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus by tellimagrandin I from rose red. FEMS Microbiol.Lett 4-15-2000;185(2):135-138.
  • Teng, C. M., Kang, Y. F., Chang, Y. L., Ko, F. N., Yang, S. C., and Hsu, F. L. ADP-mimicking platelet aggregation caused by rugosin E, an ellagitannin isolated from Rosa rugosa Thunb. Thromb.Haemost. 1997;77(3):555-561.
  • Trovato, A., Monforte, M. T., Forestieri, A. M., and Pizzimenti, F. In vitro anti-mycotic activity of some medicinal plants containing flavonoids. Boll Chim Farm 2000;139(5):225-227.
  • Venkatesh, R. P., Ramaesh, K., and Browne, B. Rose-hip keratitis. Eye 2005;19(5):595-596.
  • Warholm, O., Skaar, S., Hedman, E., Molmen, H. M., and Eik, L. The effects of a standardized herbal remedy ade from a subtype of Rosa canina in patients with osteoarthritis: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Curr Ther Res 2003;64(1):21-31.
  • Winther, K. and Kharazmi, A. A powder prepared from seeds and shells of subtype of rose-hip Rosa canina reduces pain in patients with osteoarthritis of the hand – a double blind, placebo-controlled study. Osteoarthr Cartil 2004;12(Suppl 2):145.
  • Winther, K., Apel, K., and Thamsborg, G. A powder made from seeds and shells of a rose-hip subspecies (Rosa canina) reduces symptoms of knee and hip osteoarthritis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Scand J Rheumatol. 2005;34(4):302-308.
  • Andersson U, Berger K, Hogberg A, et al. Effects of rose hip intake on risk markers of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease: a randomized, double-blind, cross-over investigation in obese persons. Eur J Clin Nutr 2012;66:585-90.
  • Back D. J., Breckenridge A. M., MacIver M, et al. Interaction of ethinyloestradiol with ascorbic acid in man. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1981;282:1516.
  • Bani S, Hasanpour S, Mousavi Z, Mostafa Garehbaghi P, Gojazadeh M. The effect of Rosa damascena extract on primary dysmenorrhea: A double-blind cross-over clinical trial. Iran Red Crescent Med J. 2014;16(1):e14643.
  • Bottari A, Belcaro G, Ledda A, et al. Lady Prelox improves sexual function in generally healthy women of reproductive age. Minerva Ginecol 2013;65(4):435-44.
  • Cesarone MR, Belcaro G, Scipione C, et al. Prevention of vaginal dryness in perimenopausal women. Supplementation with Lady Prelox®. Minerva Ginecol. 2019;71(6):434-41.
  • Conklin KA. Cancer chemotherapy and antioxidants. J Nutr 2004;134:3201S-3204S.
  • Electronic Code of Federal Regulations. Title 21. Part 182 — Substances Generally Recognized As Safe. Available at: https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?CFRPart=182
  • Feetam CL, Leach RH, Meynell MJ. Lack of a clinically important interaction between warfarin and ascorbic acid. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 1975;31:544-7.
  • Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2000. Available at: http://www.nap.edu/books/0309069351/html/.
  • Fresz T, Nagy E, Hilbert A, Tomcsanyi J. The role of flavonoids in false positive digoxin assays caused by the consumption of hibiscus flower and rose hip tea. Int J Cardiol 2014;171(2):273-4.
  • García Hernández JÁ, Madera González D, Padilla Castillo M, Figueras Falcón T. Use of a specific anti-stretch mark cream for preventing or reducing the severity of striae gravidarum. Randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. Int J Cosmet Sci. 2013;35(3):233-7.
  • Han SH, Hur MH, Buckle J, et al. Effect of aromatherapy on symptoms of dysmenorrhea in college students: A randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial. J Altern Complement Med 2006;12(6):535-41.
  • Hansten P. D., Hayton W. L. Effect of antacid and ascorbic acid on serum salicylate concentration. J Clin Pharmacol 1980;20:326-31.
  • Hansten P. D., Horn J. R. Drug Interactions Analysis and Management. Vancouver, WA: Applied Therapeutics Inc., 1997 and updates.
  • Hume R, Johnstone JM, Weyers E. Interaction of ascorbic acid and warfarin. JAMA 1972;219:1479.
  • Jiang K, Tang K, Liu H, Xu H, Ye Z, Chen Z. Ascorbic acid supplements and kidney stones incidence among men and women: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Urol J. 2019;16(2):115-120.
  • Labriola D, Livingston R. Possible interactions between dietary antioxidants and chemotherapy. Oncology 1999;13:1003-8.
  • Levine M, Rumsey SC, Daruwala R, et al. Criteria and recommendations for vitamin C intake. JAMA 1999;281:1415-23.
  • Mármol I, Sánchez-de-Diego C, Jiménez-Moreno N, Ancín-Azpilicueta C, Rodríguez-Yoldi MJ. Therapeutic applications of rose hips from different Rosa species. Int J Mol Sci. 2017;18(6):1137.
  • McLeod DC, Nahata MC. Inefficacy of ascorbic acid as a urinary acidifier (letter). N Engl J Med 1977;296:1413.
  • Moré M, Gruenwald J, Pohl U, Uebelhack R. A Rosa canina – urtica dioica – harpagophytum procumbens/zeyheri combination significantly reduces gonarthritis symptoms in a randomized, placebo-controlled double-blind study. Planta Med 2017;83(18):1384-91.
  • Morris JC, Beeley L, Ballantine N. Interaction of ethinyloestradiol with ascorbic acid in man [letter]. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1981;283:503.
  • Mostafa-Gharabaghi P, Delazar A, Gharabaghi MM, Shobeiri MJ, Khaki A. The view of cesarean pain after preemptive use of Rosa damascena extract in women with elective cesarean section. World Sci J. 2013;4:226-35.
  • Oprica L, Bucsa C, Zamfiranche MM. Ascorbic acid content of rose hip fruit depending on altitude. Iran J Public Health 2015;44(1):138-9.
  • Parandin R, Ghowsi M, Dadbod A. Protective effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Rosa canina L. fruit on cyclophosphamide-induced testicular toxicity in mice. Avicenna J Phytomed 2023;13(1):7-17.
  • Phetcharat L, Wongsuphasawat K, Winther K. The effectiveness of a standardized rose hip powder, containing seeds and shells of Rosa canina, on cell longevity, skin wrinkles, moisture, and elasticity. Clin Interv Aging. 2015;10:1849-56.
  • Prasad KN. Rationale for using high-dose multiple dietary antioxidants as an adjunct to radiation therapy and chemotherapy. J Nutr 2004;134:3182S-3S.
  • Rosenthal G. Interaction of ascorbic acid and warfarin. JAMA 1971;215:1671.
  • Seifi M, Abbasalizadeh S, Mohammad-Alizadeh-Charandabi S, Khodaie L, Mirghafourvand M. The effect of Rosa (L. Rosa canina) on the incidence of urinary tract infection in the puerperium: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Phytother Res 2018;32(1):76-83.
  • Smith EC, Skalski RJ, Johnson GC, Rossi GV. Interaction of ascorbic acid and warfarin. JAMA 1972;221:1166.
  • Taylor EN, Stampfer MJ, Curhan GC. Dietary factors and the risk of incident kidney stones in men: new insights after 14 years of follow-up. J Am Soc Nephrol 2004;15:3225-32.
  • Traxer O, Huet B, Poindexter J, et al. Effect of ascorbic acid consumption on urinary stone risk factors. J Urol 2003;170:397-401.
  • Van Steirteghem AC, Robertson EA, Young DS. Influence of large doses of ascorbic acid on laboratory test results. Clin Chem. 1978;24(1):54-7.
  • Vihtamaki T, Parantainen J, Koivisto AM, et al. Oral ascorbic acid increases plasma oestradiol during postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy. Maturitas 2002;42:129-35.
  • Weintraub M, Griner PF. Warfarin and ascorbic acid: lack of evidence for a drug interaction. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 1974;28:53-6.
  • Willich SN, Rossnagel K, Roll S, et al. Rose hip herbal remedy in patients wth rheumatoid arthritis – a randomised controlled trial. Phytomedicine 2010;17:87-93.
  • Young DS. Effects of Drugs on Clinical Laboratory Tests 4th ed. Washington: AACC Press, 1995.

Spearmint

  • Abe, S., Maruyama, N., Hayama, K., Inouye, S., Oshima, H., and Yamaguchi, H. Suppression of neutrophil recruitment in mice by geranium essential oil. Mediators.Inflamm. 2004;13(1):21-24.
  • Abe, S., Maruyama, N., Hayama, K., Ishibashi, H., Inoue, S., Oshima, H., and Yamaguchi, H. Suppression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced neutrophil adherence responses by essential oils. Mediators.Inflamm. 2003;12(6):323-328.
  • Akdogan, M., Kilinc, I., Oncu, M., Karaoz, E., and Delibas, N. Investigation of biochemical and histopathological effects of Mentha piperita L. and Mentha spicata L. on kidney tissue in rats. Hum.Exp Toxicol. 2003;22(4):213-219.
  • Akdogan, M., Tamer, M. N., Cure, E., Cure, M. C., Koroglu, B. K., and Delibas, N. Effect of spearmint (Mentha spicata Labiatae) teas on androgen levels in women with hirsutism. Phytother.Res 2007;21(5):444-447.
  • Andersen, K. E. Contact allergy to toothpaste flavors. Contact Dermatitis 1978;4(4):195-198.
  • Arumugam, P. Priya N. Subathra M. Ramesh A. Environmental Toxicology & Pharmacology 2008;26(1):92-95.
  • Baker, J. R., Bezance, J. B., Zellaby, E., and Aggleton, J. P. Chewing gum can produce context-dependent effects upon memory. Appetite 2004;43(2):207-210.
  • Bonamonte, D., Mundo, L., Daddabbo, M., and Foti, C. Allergic contact dermatitis from Mentha spicata (spearmint). Contact Dermatitis 2001;45(5):298.
  • Bulat, R., Fachnie, E., Chauhan, U., Chen, Y., and Tougas, G. Lack of effect of spearmint on lower oesophageal sphincter function and acid reflux in healthy volunteers. Aliment.Pharmacol Ther. 1999;13(6):805-812.
  • Clayton, R. and Orton, D. Contact allergy to spearmint oil in a patient with oral lichen planus. Contact Dermatitis 2004;51(5-6):314-315.
  • Dal Sacco, D., Gibelli, D., and Gallo, R. Contact allergy in the burning mouth syndrome: a retrospective study on 38 patients. Acta Derm.Venereol. 2005;85(1):63-64.
  • de Sousa, D. P., Farias Nobrega, F. F., and de Almeida, R. N. Influence of the chirality of (R)-(-)- and (S)-(+)-carvone in the central nervous system: a comparative study. Chirality 5-5-2007;19(4):264-268.
  • Francalanci, S., Sertoli, A., Giorgini, S., Pigatto, P., Santucci, B., and Valsecchi, R. Multicentre study of allergic contact cheilitis from toothpastes. Contact Dermatitis 2000;43(4):216-222.
  • Goncalves, J. C., Oliveira, Fde S., Benedito, R. B., de Sousa, D. P., de Almeida, R. N., and de Araujo, D. A. Antinociceptive activity of (-)-carvone: evidence of association with decreased peripheral nerve excitability. Biol Pharm Bull. 2008;31(5):1017-1020.
  • Grant, P. Spearmint herbal tea has significant anti-androgen effects in polycystic ovarian syndrome. A randomized controlled trial. Phytother.Res 2010;24(2):186-188.
  • Guney, M., Oral, B., Karahanli, N., Mungan, T., and Akdogan, M. The effect of Mentha spicata Labiatae on uterine tissue in rats. Toxicol.Ind.Health 2006;22(8):343-348.
  • Imai, H., Osawa, K., Yasuda, H., Hamashima, H., Arai, T., and Sasatsu, M. Inhibition by the essential oils of peppermint and spearmint of the growth of pathogenic bacteria. Microbios 2001;106 Suppl 1:31-39.
  • Johnson, A. J. and Miles, C. Chewing gum and context-dependent memory: the independent roles of chewing gum and mint flavour. Br.J Psychol. 2008;99(Pt 2):293-306.
  • Johnson, A. J. and Miles, C. Evidence against memorial facilitation and context-dependent memory effects through the chewing of gum. Appetite 2007;48(3):394-396.
  • Kumar, V., Kural, M. R., Pereira, B. M., and Roy, P. Spearmint induced hypothalamic oxidative stress and testicular anti-androgenicity in male rats – altered levels of gene expression, enzymes and hormones. Food Chem Toxicol. 2008;46(12):3563-3570.
  • Larsen, W., Nakayama, H., Fischer, T., Elsner, P., Frosch, P., Burrows, D., Jordan, W., Shaw, S., Wilkinson, J., Marks, J., Jr., Sugawara, M., Nethercott, M., and Nethercott, J. Fragrance contact dermatitis: a worldwide multicenter investigation (Part II). Contact Dermatitis 2001;44(6):344-346.
  • Masumoto, Y., Morinushi, T., Kawasaki, H., Ogura, T., and Takigawa, M. Effects of three principal constituents in chewing gum on electroencephalographic activity. Psychiatry Clin.Neurosci. 1999;53(1):17-23.
  • Miles, C. and Johnson, A. J. Chewing gum and context-dependent memory effects: a re-examination. Appetite 2007;48(2):154-158.
  • Ormerod, A. D. and Main, R. A. Sensitisation to “sensitive teeth” toothpaste. Contact Dermatitis 1985;13(3):192-193.
  • Poon, T. S. and Freeman, S. Cheilitis caused by contact allergy to anethole in spearmint flavoured toothpaste. Australas.J Dermatol. 2006;47(4):300-301.
  • Pratap, S, Mithravinda, Mohan, YS, Rajoshi, C, and Reddy, PM. Antimicrobial activity and bioautography of essential oils from selected Indian medicinal plants (MAPS-P-410). International Pharmaceutical Federation World Congress 2002;62:133.
  • Rafii, F. and Shahverdi, A. R. Comparison of essential oils from three plants for enhancement of antimicrobial activity of nitrofurantoin against enterobacteria. Chemotherapy 2007;53(1):21-25.
  • Rasooli, I., Shayegh, S., and Astaneh, S. The effect of Mentha spicata and Eucalyptus camaldulensis essential oils on dental biofilm. Int J Dent.Hyg. 2009;7(3):196-203.
  • Skrebova, N., Brocks, K., and Karlsmark, T. Allergic contact cheilitis from spearmint oil. Contact Dermatitis 1998;39(1):35.
  • Sokovic, M. D., Vukojevic, J., Marin, P. D., Brkic, D. D., Vajs, V., and van Griensven, L. J. Chemical composition of essential oils of Thymus and Mentha species and their antifungal activities. Molecules. 2009;14(1):238-249.
  • Soliman, K. M. and Badeaa, R. I. Effect of oil extracted from some medicinal plants on different mycotoxigenic fungi. Food Chem.Toxicol 2002;40(11):1669-1675.
  • Tomson, N., Murdoch, S., and Finch, T. M. The dangers of making mint sauce. Contact Dermatitis 2004;51(2):92-93.
  • Torney, L. K., Johnson, A. J., and Miles, C. Chewing gum and impasse-induced self-reported stress. Appetite 2009;53(3):414-417.
  • Tucha, O., Mecklinger, L., Maier, K., Hammerl, M., and Lange, K. W. Chewing gum differentially affects aspects of attention in healthy subjects. Appetite 2004;42(3):327-329.
  • Wilkinson, L., Scholey, A., and Wesnes, K. Chewing gum selectively improves aspects of memory in healthy volunteers. Appetite 2002;38(3):235-236.
  • Yu, T. W., Xu, M., and Dashwood, R. H. Antimutagenic activity of spearmint. Environ Mol.Mutagen. 2004;44(5):387-393.
  • Zhao, C. Z., Wang, Y., Tang, F. D., Zhao, X. J., Xu, Q. P., Xia, J. F., and Zhu, Y. F. [Effect of Spearmint oil on inflammation, oxidative alteration and Nrf2 expression in lung tissue of COPD rats]. Zhejiang.Da.Xue.Xue.Bao.Yi.Xue.Ban. 2008;37(4):357-363.
  • Akdogan M, Ozguner M, Aydin G, Gokalp O. Investigation of biochemical and histopathological effects of Mentha piperita Labiatae and Mentha spicata Labiatae on liver tissue in rats. Hum Exp Toxicol 2004;23:21-8.
  • Akdogan M, Ozguner M, Kocak A, et al. Effects of peppermint teas on plasma testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone levels and testicular tissue in rats. Urology 2004;64:394-8.
  • Bardaweel SK, Bakchiche B, ALSalamat HA, Rezzoug M, Gherib A, Flamini G. Chemical composition, antioxidant, antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities of essential oil of Mentha spicata L. (Lamiaceae) from Algerian Saharan atlas. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2018;18(1):201.
  • Connelly AE, Tucker AJ, Tulk H, et al. High-rosmarinic acid spearmint tea in the management of knee osteoarthritis symptoms. J Med Food 2014;17:1361-7.
  • Damiani E, Aloia AM, Priore MG, et al. Allergy to mint (Mentha spicata). J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 2012;22:309-10.
  • Electronic Code of Federal Regulations. Title 21. Part 182 — Substances Generally Recognized As Safe. Available at: https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?CFRPart=182
  • Falcone PH, Nieman KM, Tribby AC, et al. The attention-enhancing effects of spearmint extract supplementation in healthy men and women: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel trial. Nutr Res. 2019;64:24-38.
  • Falcone PH, Tribby AC, Vogel RM, et al. Efficacy of a nootropic spearmint extract on reactive agility: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel trial. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2018;15(1):58.
  • Gunatheesan S, Tam MM, Tate B, et al. Retrospective study of oral lichen planus and allergy to spearmint oil. Australas J Dermatol 2012;53:224-8.
  • Herrlinger KA, Nieman KM, Sanoshy KD, et al. Spearmint extract improves working memory in men and women with age-associated memory impairment. J Altern Complement Med. 2018;24(1):37-47.
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Conditions Of Use And Important Information

This information is meant to supplement, not replace advice from your doctor or healthcare provider and is not meant to cover all possible uses, precautions, interactions or adverse effects. This information may not fit your specific health circumstances. Never delay or disregard seeking professional medical advice from your doctor or other qualified health care provider because of something you have read on our website. You should always speak with your doctor or health care professional before you start, stop, or change any prescribed part of your health care plan or treatment and to determine what course of therapy is right for you.

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